«Культурная революция» в когнитивной науке: от нейронной пластичности до генетических механизмов приобретения культурного опыта
The review presents a new trend in cognitive studies of the last decade – «cultural neuroscience», a research area developing at the interface of experimental psychology, neuroscience, cultural anthropology and genetics. Theoretical approaches and empirical data obtained within two lines of research are discussed: on the one hand, the study of structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in the course of mastering various cultural practices (literacy, professional skills, etc.), and on the other – investigations into the neural and genetic correlates of analytic vs. holistic styles of perception, attention, memory and categorization in so-called «individualistic» (Western) and «collectivist» (Eastern) cultures. Methodological problems arising from this research are outlined. The research and conclusions accumulated by cultural neuroscientists are compared with the basic assumptions of L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology.