«Культурная революция» в когнитивной науке: от нейронной пластичности до генетических механизмов приобретения культурного опыта
The review presents a new trend in cognitive studies of the last decade – «cultural neuroscience», a research area developing at the interface of experimental psychology, neuroscience, cultural anthropology and genetics. Theoretical approaches and empirical data obtained within two lines of research are discussed: on the one hand, the study of structural and functional plasticity of the human brain in the course of mastering various cultural practices (literacy, professional skills, etc.), and on the other – investigations into the neural and genetic correlates of analytic vs. holistic styles of perception, attention, memory and categorization in so-called «individualistic» (Western) and «collectivist» (Eastern) cultures. Methodological problems arising from this research are outlined. The research and conclusions accumulated by cultural neuroscientists are compared with the basic assumptions of L.S. Vygotsky's cultural-historical psychology.
In article, it is noticed that the situation which has developed in Russia brightly illustrates interdependence of system manufacture - a society - environment. Infringement of one of components conducts to infringement of functioning of all system. At the moment there are some positions of principle concerning decision-making on maintenance of quality of environment.
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The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.