Electro-thermal Design of Smart Power Devices and Integrated Circuits
An efficient methodology of electro-thermal design of smart power semiconductor
devices and ICs, based on the combined use of SPICE circuit analysis tool and software tools for
2D/3D thermal simulation of IC chip construction, is presented. The features of low, medium and
high power elements, temperature sensors, IC chips simulation are considered
For the correct accounting of joint effects of radiation and temperature on characteristics of MOSFETs with the help of TCAD system the nonlinear correction coefficient which considers change of concentration of traps from temperature is entered into model of traps volume density in oxide.
The methodology and software tools for multi-level thermal and electro-thermal design of electronic components is presented. The discussion covers 2D/3D constructions of: 1) discrete and integrated semiconductor devices; 2) monolithic and hybrid ICs; 3) MCMs and PCBs. The actual test validation through thermal measurement is demonstrated for all types of components.
Hardware-software subsystem designed for MOSFETs characteristic measurement and SPICE model parameter extraction taking into account radiation effects is presented. Parts of the system are described. The macromodel approach is used to account for radiation effects in MOSFET modeling. Particularities of the account for radiation effects in MOSFETs within the measurement and model parameter extraction procedures are emphasized. Application of the subsystem is illustrated on the example of radiation hardened 0.25 μm SOI MOSFET test structures.
The computational model of the temperature sensors integrated on the IC chip with power transistors is developed. The 2D/3D problem of sensor placement is mathematically described by the classic heat transfer equation coupled with the equation for current density distribution. It is shown that parasitic effects of sensor current displacement and thermo-emf generation resulting from a temperature gradients (Seebeck effect) must be taken into account. For this purpose the special differential equation is introduced. The examples of point- and strip-like temperature sensors modeling for power BJTs and ICs are demonstrated.
The effects of neutron irradiation on both Si bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and SiGe heterojunction transistor (HBT) are investigated using Synopsys TCAD tool. The carrier lifetime degradation under irradiation models are included in the program. For SiGe HBT at fluences as high as 10**15 cm-2 the degradation of peak current gain is less than 40%, and the device maintains a peak current gain of 80 100 after 10**15 cm-2. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.
The automatic electro-thermal simulation has been implemented in Mentor Graphics PCB Design Flow. New program-dispatcher TransPower has been developed to control the electro-thermal calculation process, combining the programs of the electric (Analog Designer) and thermal (BETAsoft) simulation into a single cycle. As a result, the labor consumption and the PCB electro-thermal simulation time have been significantly reduced, the accuracy and reliability of calculations have been improved and the human errors have been eliminated.
Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.