Природно-географический фактор в аспекте теории истории
The role of the natural and geographical factor has always been significant in the life of society. In the history of philosophy this role was comprehended rather long ago. In the 19th – early 20thcentury, special attention was paid to the role of natural factor. However, many scientific schools, including Marxist, did not consider it as the most important one, so that was the reason of its inefficient study in the Soviet times. Thus, unfortunately, the studies of the natural-geographical aspect are insufficient and do not reflect its actual role. The only field that pays major attention to this aspect is the geopolitical one. We consider that this problem should be investigated more thoroughly. The present paper tries to make up for lacking information on this subject and it can also be used as a lecture in the theory of history.
In early 2010 Russia once again entered a turbulent period. From the system of property distribution, to structure of the political elites and relations between the Center and the regions - various spheres of Russian life are in a state of flux. Two major factors are driving this change: oil prices which are unlikely to grow the way they did in the 2000s and the rapidly deteriorating efficiency of governance. Relations between federal and regional elites, as well as public activism, are derived from these two factors and play an important role of their own. Will change take an evolutionary path or is Russia facing another revolution? The book offers a view of the Russian future until 2025 based on thematic scenarios created by an international team of Russia scholars whose expertise range from politics and economics to demographics and foreign policy.
This book is a collection of chapters about emerged during last 15 years international television channels and their impact on international global media configuration. During this periode some new global channels emerged in non-western world, such as in Russia, Middle East etc. This book examines geopolitical strategies of such channels, theirs content and define new spaces for the future research in field of internationalization of media.
En 2005, le Kremlin a lancé la première chaîne internationale de télévision russe destinée en priorité à des publics étrangers : Russia Today. Depuis, cette télévision qui diffuse en anglais, arabe et espagnol est un instrument considérable de la diplomatie russe. Dans ce chapitre, nous essayons de montrer comment l’inauguration de cette chaîne, plus de 70 ans après les premières émissions internationales, en allemand, de Radio Moscou, s’inscrit parfaitement dans la ligne poursuivie par la politique extérieure de la « Nouvelle Russie » qui entend se repositionner, depuis plus d’une dizaine d’années, sur la scène internationale comme une grande puissance, comme l’illustre la crise en Ukraine, la plus grave qui ait eu lieu dans les territoires de l’ex-URSS depuis la chute de celle-ci. Nous allons procéder en trois temps : nous reviendrons d’abord sur l’évolution de la diplomatie russe, avant d’analyser comment la Russie a organisé en fonction de cette dernière son dispositif de médias internationaux et de voir la place qu’occupe Russia Today dans celui-ci, et, enfin, d’examiner le contenu de la chaîne.
The article contains the critical examination of Grinberg-Rubinfeld’s concept of economic sociodynamics (CES) and patronized goods from the position of liberal doctrines of the Austrian school. It reveals von Mises theory of history, where ideas occupy the central place and interests are pro-derivatives from them. It is shown that the notion of "public interest" is a dominant public opinion, which, of course, cannot exist as something separate from the individuals. Thus the holism inherent in CES is rejected. Public interest is not necessary represents something positive and ensuring progress. The public interest may be aimed against it. And outside public opinion it simply does not exist. Patronized goods with the exception of pure public goods become so not because they have need in the state, but because the state and interest groups need to take care of them. The state constrains free entrepreneurship, which only could provide efficient delivery of the most of the patronized goods. And the state is ineffective supplier of these goods. In general social liberalism from the perspective of the Austrian economic theory is presented as a new wave of statism
This article accounts for the revival of geopolitics in Russian post-Soviet foreign policy thinking and also for the fact that geopolitics-inspired foreign policy prescriptions had relatively little impact on the actual conduct of Russian foreign policy. It is argued that classical geopolitics was revived in Russia in order to objectively present the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a crisis. The crisis, in turn, was constructed using a number of themes first articulated by classical Eurasians, namely ideology, modernisation and Russia's distinctiveness. However, geopolitical thinking had little practical relevance because the solution to the crisis was eventually conceptualized in non-geopolitical terms.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.