Institutional diversity in Russian higher education: revolutions and evolution
This paper is devoted to changes in the structure of the higher education system in Russia, analysing both historical context and current institutional diversity. The review starts from the Soviet quasi-corporate system when the state combined demand-side and supply-side roles in higher education. The post-Soviet transformation brings new forces that shaped institutional diversity. Following that, the historical typology of institutions is investigated with regard to the major forces influencing these universities' development. Taking into account both the historical legacy and the crucial post-Soviet period (1990s–2000s), a typology of new types of higher education institutions is set forth. It represents an extreme case of state-authorized higher education facing market forces. The state abandons its monopoly on demand in higher education and cannot fully control the supply side. And the system itself is under pressure from the influence of different sides.
In the chapter from comparative economics textbook reality and virtuality are compared; common features and distinctions between old and new comparative science are demonstrated; the main features of comparative method are characterized. The workbook is attached.
The book addresses judicial reforms in a number of post-socialist countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Baltic states, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and several other former Sovier republics. The focal point is the impact of the Soviet past (Soviet attitude towards law, specifics of early Soviet criminal law, the role of Soviet courts and the phenomenon of the Soviet judicial mentality) on judicial and police reforms.
The book gives a detailed account of the theory of topological vector spaces and their applications.
The main approaches of bank corporate business to strategy of a choice of the target markets of sale and forming of the offer of bank products for prospective and current enterprise customers are analysed. On the basis of the characteristic of the existing phenomena interpretation of "current state" is given and modern approaches to strengthening of a role of banks in development of corporate sector of economy are offered.
The article deals with the problems of education system reform. The author considers the factors of education market development. The US education system's features are characterized. The approaches to research of the structure of the education services market are justified. The problems in content and forms of educational services in logistics are considered.
The article reviews the institutional core of the Russian society (Muscovite matrix) in the long historical period. The six basic features of this core are distinguished and its transformation in the framework of traditional society is described/ These features are: authoritarian rule (samovlastie), imperialistic spirit (imperstvo), power-ownership, anti-personality, social estates and administrative rent. Soviet socialism is treated as traditional society of modern type (TSMT-1.0), and modern Russia as TSMT-2.0. The article concludes that the Russian Sonderweg is caused by her antagonism to Western (based on the rule of law) civilization and represents its path dependence. The way out of this path dependence has low probability because of the embedded political and economic culture.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.