Institutional diversity in Russian higher education: revolutions and evolution
This paper is devoted to changes in the structure of the higher education system in Russia, analysing both historical context and current institutional diversity. The review starts from the Soviet quasi-corporate system when the state combined demand-side and supply-side roles in higher education. The post-Soviet transformation brings new forces that shaped institutional diversity. Following that, the historical typology of institutions is investigated with regard to the major forces influencing these universities' development. Taking into account both the historical legacy and the crucial post-Soviet period (1990s–2000s), a typology of new types of higher education institutions is set forth. It represents an extreme case of state-authorized higher education facing market forces. The state abandons its monopoly on demand in higher education and cannot fully control the supply side. And the system itself is under pressure from the influence of different sides.
In the chapter from comparative economics textbook reality and virtuality are compared; common features and distinctions between old and new comparative science are demonstrated; the main features of comparative method are characterized. The workbook is attached.
The book addresses judicial reforms in a number of post-socialist countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Baltic states, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia and several other former Sovier republics. The focal point is the impact of the Soviet past (Soviet attitude towards law, specifics of early Soviet criminal law, the role of Soviet courts and the phenomenon of the Soviet judicial mentality) on judicial and police reforms.
The book gives a detailed account of the theory of topological vector spaces and their applications.
The main approaches of bank corporate business to strategy of a choice of the target markets of sale and forming of the offer of bank products for prospective and current enterprise customers are analysed. On the basis of the characteristic of the existing phenomena interpretation of "current state" is given and modern approaches to strengthening of a role of banks in development of corporate sector of economy are offered.
The article deals with the problems of education system reform. The author considers the factors of education market development. The US education system's features are characterized. The approaches to research of the structure of the education services market are justified. The problems in content and forms of educational services in logistics are considered.
Purpose: The regional economy depends on the structure of industrial production which has been established earlier. This study makes it possible to determine the hi-tech spheres in which the entrepreneurship is going to develop more successfully. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the technological proximity of the industrial production branches with the high-tech economy sector for further defining the egress from the previous development path.
Methodology: In order to determine possible egress of the region from the previous development trajectory there has been proposed a method of proximity evaluation between the high-tech sector and the existing structure of industrial production in the region. The characteristics of high technologies relatedness to other industry branches in the Russian regions have been defined.
Findings: For the Russian regions it was determined that less than 30% of sub-branches can be considered as connected with the high technology sector - 25%. The regions having the comparative advantages in the high-tech types of industry and sectors related thereto have been revealed. We have demonstrated that individual regions can progress through investment into interregional connections and entrepreneurship domestic innovations.
Research/practical implications: Considered as the investigatory contribution of the paper can be the alternative proposed to the comparative advantage index in the form of a localization coefficient to be used at evaluation of the technological proximity of industrial branches. The results of this study can be of benefit to representatives of the regional managerial bodies in the course of the economic policy development in the sphere of entrepreneurship.
Originality/value: Proposed in the article is a method for evaluation of technological proximity of industry branches which differs from the traditional use of the localization coefficient. The calculated proximity indexes make it possible to determine such high-tech industries to the development of which there are the necessary prerequisites in the region, i.e. the technologically similar industrial production is under development.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.