Grouping of Items in Mobile Web Questionnaires
There is some evidence that a scrolling design may reduce breakoffs in mobile web surveys compared to a paging design, but there is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of the optimal number of items per page. We investigate the effect of the number of items presented on a page on data quality in two types of questionnaires – with or without user-controlled skips. Three versions of a 30-item instrument were compared, with 5, 15 or all 30 questions presented on a page, in two different surveys, one with skips and one without. We found that displaying 30 items on a page reduced the breakoff rate by almost a third compared to presenting 5 items per page in the questionnaire without skips, however, the difference was not statistically significant. In both surveys with and without skips the completion times were significantly lower in the 30-item per page condition; however, item nonresponse rates were also higher. We give some practical recommendations to guide choices while designing questionnaires for mobile web surveys.
While mobile phones or cell phones have been a challenge for telephone survey researchers for some time, the Internet or Web capabilities of mobile phones have begun to receive attention in the last few years. There are a number of ways that Internet-enabled smartphones can affect survey data collection, and the implications of these for various sources of errors are only now being fully explored. There are three broad approaches to the opportunities and challenges posed by mobile Web.
The objective of this paper is to gain more evidence regarding how the design of the rating scales and open-ended questions influence data quality in Web surveys of MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) students. We present the results of four full-factorial randomized experiments that investigate the impact of the following factors: 1) order of response options; 2) user interface for rating questions 3) layout of question's options; and 4) size of answer boxes in open-ended questions. We found that responses to scalar questions with ascending (from negative to positive) or descending (from positive to negative) order of response options do not differ substantially. The use of the radio button format allows a reduction in the percentage of respondents who choose the “Don't know” option and makes responding to questions less challenging in comparison with slider and text box interfaces. There are no significant differences in the answers of respondents who completed questionnaires with a vertical or horizontal orientation of the questions' options. In addition, respondents who answer the questions with larger answer boxes are more likely to write longer comments.
This paper investigates the effects on response and breakoff rates in Web surveys of e-mail invitation design elements including: subject line, estimated survey duration, and invitation length. The analysis is focused not only on the main effects, but also on an issue which has not yet been studied systematically: interaction effects between these design elements. A factorial complete block design Web experiment – among students, faculty, and administrative staff at the Higher School of Economics in Russia – varying the estimated length of the survey (10 vs. 20 minutes), subject line (formal “monitoring” vs. informal “help” request), and invitation length (short vs. long) was conducted. We discuss the results of the experiment and argue that we should not ignore interaction effects between design elements to understand response in Web surveys more thoroughly.
Daily activity sees data constantly flowing through cameras, the internet, satellites, radio frequencies, sensors, private appliances, cars, smartphones, tablets and the like. Among all the tools currently used, mobile devices, especially mobile phones, smartphones and tablets, are the most widespread, with their use becoming prevalent in everyday life within both developed and developing countries. Shopping, reading newspapers, participating in forums, projecting and completing surveys, communicating with friends and making new ones, filing tax returns and getting involved in politics are all examples of how ingrained mobile technology is to modern lifestyle.
Mobile devices allow a wide range of heterogeneous activities and, as a result, have great potential in terms of the different types of data that can be collected. The use of mobile devices to collect, analyse and apply research data is explored here. This book focuses on the use of mobile devices in various research contexts, aiming to provide a detailed and updated knowledge on what is a comparatively new field of study. This is done considering different aspects: main methodological possibilities and issues; comparison and integration with more traditional survey modes or ways of participating in research; quality of collected data; use in commercial market research; representativeness of studies based only on the mobile-population; analysis of the current spread of mobile devices in several countries, and so on. Thus, the book provides interesting research findings from a wide range of countries and contexts.
This book was developed in the framework of WebDataNet’s Task Force 19. WebDataNet, was created in 2009 by a group of researchers focusing on the discussion on data collection methods. Supported by the European Union programme for the Coordination of Science and Technology, WebDataNet has become a unique, multidisciplinary network that has brought together leading web-based data collection experts from several institutions, disciplines, and relevant backgrounds from more than 35 different countries.
Several studies have measured a gamification effect in the surveys among adults. However, no experiments have been published with a focus on younger respondents. In this article, data quality between three conditions is compared among children and adolescents 7–15 years old as follows: (1) a text-only survey, (2) a visual survey with an attractive design and images, and (3) a gamified sur- vey. To test a gamification effect, an experiment using a volunteer online access panel in Russia was conducted among 1,050 children. The gamified survey produced completion time more than a third longer than the text-only survey. A higher overall item nonresponse rate was found in both the gami- fied and visual surveys. However, this was mainly due to the Flash-based questions in these condi- tions. Fewer respondents straight-lined and used middle responses in the gamified and visual surveys. It was also less burdensome to complete the gamified survey. Children requested help to answer survey questions less often. They found it more enjoyable and easier. Moreover, the sub- jective evaluation of the completion time was not different from the two other conditions. Overall,
Several studies have measured a gamification effect in the surveys among adults. However, no experiments have been published with a focus on younger respondents. In this article, data quality between three conditions is compared among children and adolescents 7–15 years old as follows: (1) a text-only survey, (2) a visual survey with an attractive design and images, and (3) a gamified survey. To test a gamification effect, an experiment using a volunteer online access panel in Russia was conducted among 1,050 children. The gamified survey produced completion time more than a third longer than the text-only survey. A higher overall item nonresponse rate was found in both the gamified and visual surveys. However, this was mainly due to the Flash-based questions in these conditions. Fewer respondents straight-lined and used middle responses in the gamified and visual surveys. It was also less burdensome to complete the gamified survey. Children requested help to answer survey questions less often. They found it more enjoyable and easier. Moreover, the subjective evaluation of the completion time was not different from the two other conditions. Overall, we suggest that a gamification effect in web surveys among children should be explored further.
In this paper, we conduct a meta-analysis of breakoff rates in mobile web surveys. We test if an optimization of web surveys for mobile devices, invitation mode (SMS vs. e-mail), survey length, expected duration in the invitation, survey design (scrolling vs. paging), prerecruitment, number of reminders, design complexity (grids, drop-down questions, sliders, images, progress indicator), incentives, an opportunity to skip survey questions, and an opportunity to select the preferred mode (PC or mobile web) have an effect on breakoffs. The meta-analysis is based on 14 studies (39 independent samples) conducted using online panels – probability-based and non-probability-based. We found that mobile optimized surveys, email invitations, shorter surveys, using a prerecruitment, more reminders, a less complex design, and an opportunity to choose the preferred survey mode decrease breakoff rates in mobile web surveys. No effect of a scrolling design, incentives, indicating expected duration in the invitation, and an opportunity to skip survey questions were found.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.