Socio-cultural differences in self-construal and subjective well-being: A test of four cultural models
Positive mental health is considered to be a significant predictor of health and longevity; however, our understanding of the ways in which this important characteristic is represented in users’ behavior on social networking sites is limited. The goal of this study was to explore associations between positive mental health and language used in online communication in a large sample of Russian Facebook users. The five-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used as a self-report measure of well-being. Morphological, sentiment, and semantic analyses were performed for linguistic data. The total of 6,724 participants completed the questionnaire and linguistic data were available for 1,972. Participants’ mean age was 45.7 years (SD = 11.6 years); 73.4% were female. The dataset included 15,281 posts, with an average of 7.67 (SD = 5.69) posts per participant. Mean WHO-5 score was 60.0 (SD = 19.1), with female participants exhibiting lower scores. Use of negative sentiment words and impersonal predicates (“should statements”) demonstrated an inverse association with the WHO-5 scores. No significant correlation was found between the use of positive sentiment words and the WHO-5 scores. This study expands current understanding of the association between positive mental health and language use in online communication by employing data from a non-Western sample.
The paper aims to reveal the effects of employment type (permanent/temporary, formal/informal, self-employed/hired, part-time/full-time) on subjective well-being across Europe (27 countries). At the end of the 20th century, a higher demand for flexible labour relations was accompanied by a value shift towards the expansion of individual freedom, tolerance, and creativity. As previous research shows, non-permanent jobs often bring losses in wages, income instability, uncertainty about the future, and job dissatisfaction. This leads us to expect that flexible working relations could contribute to unhappiness and life dissatisfaction. We use the European Social Survey (2010) as an empirical basis for the analysis. The main tested idea of the paper is that countries with more liberal labour legislation have higher rates of subjective well-being as fewer people are employed on a temporary basis. The results from the regression analysis show that temporary and informal employment negatively affect subjective well-being, whereas self-employment influences subjective well-being positively. A strict employment protection legislation has negative impact on subjective well-being, especially for informal workers and temporary contractors
Taking the individual data from the European Social Survey of 2004 and 2010, the authors of this paper investigate how employment type (permanent, temporary or informal employment) affects subjective well-being in respect to employment protection legislation across European countries. Our study outcomes are in line with previous research disclosing the negative impact of being temporally or informally employed on subjective well-being. The additional contribution of this study is the rigorous analysis of how employment protection legislation (EPL) moderates this effect by applying the multilevel modeling approach for 27 countries. In countries with strict EPL temporary and informal workers are significantly less satisfied with their lives than permanent employees. In countries with liberal EPL no significant decreasing effect from temporary or informal employment on people’s subjective well-being was found.
Subjective health is a self-assessment of human condition and measure of health — has proven itself in research as a predictor of mortality and objective health. This indicator is most widely used by a variety of disciplines in the context quality of life and health studies. Along with this, the comprehension of this construct is still complicated and disputed. In psychiatry, the subjective understanding of health is reduced to ideas about development and course of mental illness. There is evidence of a culturally specific understanding of health by representatives of different nationalities. The article raises the problem of the influence of psychiatric diagnosis on selfassessment of health as a whole.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.