Особенности статистического измерения и основные направления инноваций в сфере услуг
The article is devoted to the methodological and practical issues of statistical measurement of innovation in the services sector. Specific traits of service sector as an object of the statistical observation have been studied taking into consideration the modern international standards. The paper also examines the main stages of development of the national methodology for innovation survey in Russia, overviews concretized definitions of key terms and concepts, which have been developed and offered by the authors for service sector. Innovation‘ resources base and effectiveness of service sector enterprises have been analyzed in the framework of the paper which also contains the description of the priority types of innovations in the sectors of communication and computer and related activities.
This article presents data on the current state of Russian space industry and describes its short- and medium-term development prospects. The analysis is based on statistical, research and government policy documents which allow to identify key trends and development directions of space-related science and technology in Russia in the year 2012-2013. Significant attention is paid to analysing strategic and projected data and programmes approved by public authorities. These allow to identify the steps taken to regulate space industry, major government policy tools and, goals and objectives set for the immediate future. Of particular interest are projects implemented during the period in question, and those planned for the near future. These projects cover all key areas of space exploration and space-based Earth observation. Development prospects for space-related services are analysed for the following segments: manned spacecraft launches, space navigation satellites, and remote sensing of the Earth. An important topic in this article is international cooperation and its prospects for the near future.
In spite of the “Lukashenko ultimatum” given to Belarusian science at the end of 2011, the status quo was still maintained and promised reforms were stalled. Attempts to initiate “internal competition” between academic and university science ran into obstacles due to the inertia of the former and inactivity of the latter. The announced transformation of the funding structure and the increased actual costs for financing scientific, technical, and innovation activity did not change the longstanding trend of science being chronically underfunded. The key problem of linking science with business and industry was still not resolved. Apart from some minor improvements to the situation regarding postgraduates in several disciplines, the general trend of downsizing and ageing of scientific staff continued. Positive results during the year included: improved research intensity figures (up from 0.7% in 2011 to 1% in 2012); Belarus’ rising international ratings (from 52nd to 45th place, according to the Knowledge Index; from 73rd to 59th place, according to the Knowledge Economic Index; and 6th place worldwide for the number of patent applications filed); and various successes in the information technology field.
We present a mathematical model that describes both the Great Divergence and the Great Convergence between the Center and the Periphery of the World System.
The European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies was established 17 years ago. This event has been held in countries across Europe, including Ireland, England, France, Malta, Portugal, Spain to mention only a few of the countries who have hosted it. The conference is generally attended by participants from more than 25 countries. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods (indexed by Scopus) publishes a special edition of the best papers presented at this conference. Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited (ACPIL) promotes excellent academic research through its conferences and publications activities.
ACPIL works with more than a thousand research active academics who contribute to reviewing academic research and who contribute to conference committees around the world.
In the first two months of 2014, the State Committee for Science and Technology (SCST) did not submit traditionally optimistic reports on the advancement of science in 2013. The National Academic of Science of Belarus (NASB) made even more optimistic one instead. In 2013, a reform of the science sector entered an open phase after the NASB presented a draft scientific development program.
The science sector saw a number of stuff reductions and reshuffles. Thirty-one legislative acts were issued to regulate scientific and innovative activities. However, taken together, all these measures create an ambivalent impression, showing the problem of coherence of education and science reforms.
The 2011 financial crisis was accompanied by an unprecedented reduction in science budgets. The era of primarily state#financed scientific research is now drawing to a close, thus putting the issue of finding mechanisms to commercialise science onto the agenda. This is in line with recently#emerging trends in science#funding policy, and corresponds to the strategic benchmarks of the State Innovation Development Program (SIDP) for 2011–2015, which was adopted in May 2011.The SIDP 2011–2015 sets practical goals for introducing innovationin legislative, institutional, financial, human resources, and infrastructural reform fields. The unrushed implementation of these reforms during the previous five#year period (SIDP 2007–2010) was replaced by convulsive and radical reform attitudes in late 2011 when, against the backdrop of the financial crisis, the critically low level of science funding began to become painfully obvious. The initial year of SIDP 2011–2015 was quite productive in terms of legislative improvements in the fields of science, technology and innovation. But the results from implementing innovation projects were less impressive, due to a number of major infrastructural, staffing, and financial challenges.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.