Ценностные ориентиры экспертов Российского фонда фундаментальных исследований: опыт когнитивного картирования
The article contains the results of the cognitive mapping procedure applied to a series of interviews with the reviewers of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. The procedure can be qualified as a qualitative research method, which allows to produce a graphic representation of the cognitive content of the respondents’ speech. The interviews touched upon the criteria and methods used by the reviewers in evaluating research proposals, as well as the value basis of the Russian scientific community. Cognitive mapping was applied to 15 interviews, which allowed to conclude that the examined group possessed coincident beliefs in regard to the criteria used in the review of proposals, to the separation between basic science and development, and to the ways to improve the current state of science in Russia.
This paper aims to present a retrospective analysis of the experience gained in the course of 20 years’ history of S&T priority setting and critical technologies’ identification, in terms of expected and actually achieved effects and lessons learned.
The methodology is based on analysing project documentation and reports, as well as on interviewing project team members. Each project’s effects are evaluated in terms of the six key foresight functions.
The key factors affecting success of priority S&T areas and critical technologies’ selection and implementation have been identified. They include focusing on practical implementation, linking S&T with socio-economic goals, combining thematic priorities with infrastructural and functional ones, as well as integrating priority selection in the S&T policy process.
Research limitations implications
The task of evaluating priority setting exercises over a long period requires a substantial information base to provide a comprehensive comparative analysis. The projects considered in the paper also need to be analysed in a context of socio-economic development.
The lessons learned presented in the paper could contribute to further development of approaches to selecting science and technology priorities and critical technologies, and their more efficient implementation.
Priority setting has significant influence on policymaking and decision-making at the national and industry level. The evaluation of a unique 20-year experience provides substantial information and practical hints for further increasing efficacy of this instrument.
We reviewed the output of research and innovation cooperation between Russia and the US, including publications and patents, in the four prospective areas of energy efficiency and renewable energy during 2007-2011. Joint US-Russia research groups appear to focus primarily on hydrogen energy (fuel cells), followed by solar photovoltaics. The upcoming areas of smart grid and biofuels were left out entirely both from research and innovation collaboration. Russian patents in green energy technologies registered in the US are very low in comparison to those from Japan, Korea, and China.
The article is devoted to the professional career in the field of science and technology in terms of changes in its models and influence of factors of social context. This article reviews the ideas and principles of sustainable development, oriented to long-term and humanistic goals, in conjunction with interdisciplinary approaches to the study of careers. It is shown that measurement of career associated with the understanding of coherence and duration in time of the relation (character continuity) of these periods, depending on the external environment, attainability as a possibility of assessing success and development of professional status. Conclusions in the article relate to methodological approaches to the infrastructure of a professional career at various levels, taking into account the capabilities and limitations and factors influencing the formation of ideas about the stages of a scientific career, the indicators of success, efficiency and achievements. A favourable social context becomes the basic condition for long-term and consistent career as a way of accumulation of knowledge, expertise, resources, social ties and status positions.
This is the second volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This book analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. Inequality and Development Challenges argues that inequalities (assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location) that go beyond the aspects of income, must be factored into development strategies since the benefits of innovation are not distributed equally. It combines original and detailed data, making this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as policymakers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.
Research evaluation recently became a widely disseminated exercise aimed in the end of the day at improving the cost efficiency of public funding of national R&D sectors. In November 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation initiated a national evaluation exercise of public research institutions (PRIs) to provide information basis for development of S&T policies aimed at increasing effectiveness and strengthening the role of R&D performing institutions in economic and social development. The aim of this paper is that of providing an approach for multidimensional assessment of R&D performance based on quantitative data derived from the national evaluation exercise, specifically looking at its applicability and limitations for further analysis and preliminary differentiation of PRIs as well as for use in policymaking.
Developed countries of the 20th Century remain a strong influence worldwide and are being joined by new comers. This, is an opportunity for researchers, scholars, and businessmen to tackle new problems in a variety of technology fields.
The IAMOT 2013 conference is about Science, Technology and Innovation in the Emerging Markets Economy and it is intended to address these problems, discuss its various challenges and experiences as well as point to some possible solutions.
Emerging markets are playing an important role in the global economic system. For investors, these countries have been offering excellent returns, what also means increasing investments in R&D. Moreover, Science, Technology and Innovation have definitely been incorporated in their policy agendas and business strategies. From traditional commodity sectors to new fast-growing high-tech industries, challenges claim for new competitive endeavors. Innovation through new technology, new organizational issues, and new products are the shortest way to generate wealth and development.
Innovation is crucial for competitiveness, both in the national economy and in the firm level. In emerging economies, innovation is an important driver for economic transformation and for accelerating the process of catching up with the global technology frontier.
This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyze the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.