Измерение качества жизни: возможности муниципальной статистики
The measurement of quality of life on municipality level is necessary for effective economic policy performance evaluation. The article presents the results of a study of municipal statistics data which is aimed at finding economic indicators related to quality of life within municipalities. Following an established methodology, the authors analyze available information on households’ income, consumption and wealth. The authors have examined open municipal statistics sources and found significant limitations of them. A number of indicators of wage, the retail trade volume and housing is suggested for municipal quality of life index to be constructed allowing for possible access to the data.
This book offers a comprehensive review of how social relationships foster well-being and health at various stages of life. By explicitly focusing on three main stages of a person’s life, this book guides the reader through the influences of social relationships on the quality of life in adolescence, adulthood, and old age. Moreover, the book investigates the causal, very often psychological, mechanisms linking social relationships with quality of life. Building on the works of economists, sociologists, communication experts, psychologists and public health experts, this book provides an in-depth description of the possible mechanisms that make social relationships pivotal in people’s life.
The article presents the data of long-term (1988-2008) sociological research on the socio-economic and environmental problems of the indigenous Evenk municipal district, arising from the possible implementation of a hydro-electric project on the Nizhnyaya Tunguska river.
Quality of life is a key attribute of a country. Estimating the social impact of economic development we face a problem of measuring. Because of the leading role of technologies and innovations in economic progress of modern society it is reasonable to use a corresponding global index as a measure of technological development of the country or region. Quality of life is a many-sided concept and needs particular approach for its definition in the context of the research. Two main approaches are considered. The former focuses on the population well-being and provides the objective measures of life quality; the latter is concentrated on self-assessment by the people of their quality of life. Both are significant and their using makes the analysis more comprehensive. As an indicator of innovative and technological development the Global Innovative Index (GII) can be used. There are many kinds of indicators of well-being such as Index of Economic Well-Being [Osberg, Sharp, 1998], Index of Social Progress [Estes R.J., 1998], and others. One of the most widely used indicators is the Human Development Index (HDI). A lot of interesting indicators are proposed, but many of them are focused on the particular aspect such as Health-Related Quality of Life [Andersen, 1999], Social Weather Station [Manghas, Guerro, 1998]. Other more universal indicators are often unavailable for most countries or regions of interest. So index based on self-assessment quality of life has been constructed as a first principal component of the partial indexes provided by Gallup. Various types of linear and non-linear regression models for describing the social impact of the innovative development are considered. Additional information sources have been used for explaining of the particular aspects of the problem, and the auxiliary models have been created and analyzed. As a model of the Global Innovative Index influence of the Human Development Index the logistic curve has been proposed. The explanatory power of this model is not the only reason for such a choice. The model may be considered as relevant because of the nature of the well-being indicator used. For self-assessment based quality of life index we can find another situation. Some countries with relatively high HDI show low value of the self-assessment index. It is related with the dynamic of innovative development which has an influence on the social environment of the society. In turn the social environment has a great influence on innovative and technological development of the country. Created models allow estimating social impact of innovative development indexes. The dual role of the social climate may be discussed in the context of the research. From one hand the social climate of the society is formed under influence of the technological environment. From the other hand the latter may be considered as a factor of progress in technology and innovations. Further research may be concentrated on the more comprehensive model of such interaction which evidently will be more complicated one
The up-to-date problem of improvement of the quality of higher equation is discussed in the present article. Results of the world rating of the higher-educational institutions for 2011 and 2012 as well as its Russian positions are given by the QS research agency. «Strategy-2020» is being discussed (paragraph 10. Professional education). The author of the article shares with her experience in arrangement of original student work in the form of on-line study. The article deals with the thesis «High-quality education today is deserving life in the future».
This article addresses the questions, What do children in urban areas do on Saturdays? What type of organizational resources do they have access to? Does this vary by social class? Using diary data on children’s activities on Saturdays in the Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale metropolitan area, the authors describe the different types of venues (households, businesses, public space, associations, charities, congregations, and government/tribal agencies) that served different types of children. They find that the likelihood of using a charity or business rather than a government or tribal provider increased with family income. Also, the likelihood of using a congregation or a government facility rather than business, charity, or household increased with being Hispanic. The authors discuss implications for the urban division of labor on Saturdays and offer research questions that need further investigation.
The article is devoted to analysis of approaches to disability in quality of life and well-being studies. Disability is analyzed from the point of view of different research contexts – clinical, social, cultural, historical, positive. As a rule, the studies were performed in the format of the classical methodologies, and they consider the quality of life of people with disabilities from the point of view of the various deficiencies and negative consequences of disability. We propose to understand these effects as conditions, which influence the life disability people, however, are not as the main determinants of their quality of life and subjective well-being. Synthesis of the modern approaches of psychology of personality with the potential of the cultural-historical paradigm allows to overcome the existing methodological dead-ends, associated with exaggeration of the role of limitations in life with disability. Thus, the question of one's quality of life it is possible to raise not only on social groups level, but also on personality level. We substantiated the opportunity and potential of the study of disability as one of the "complicated conditions" of personality development.
This volume of scientific papers IEF RAS includes articles on a wide range of issues of theory and practice analysis and forecasting of national and regional economies and their sectors. The articles raise urgent problems of Russia’s socio-economic development: restoring of economic growth, increase in productivity, transition to a new technological level of production, improving the quality of RF citizens’ life. The book is addressed to researchers, economists, teachers, graduate students, students and readers interested in current and future socio-economic Russia’s problems.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.