Доказательная медицина в начале XXI века
The development of the rational medicine, based on scientific evidence (evidence based medicine, EBM) in the late 21 century lead to the opening of the Pandora box of doubt in the evidence base of medicine. Paradoxically part of the specialists and the public, who are inconvenient with the critical assessment of the evidence, start to criticize the EBM for the corrupted evidence base. In the real world the only way out from the situation with the weak evidence base is the work to support the free access to the research evidence and hard work to improve the quality of evidence
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The current details of publishing in the scientific and technological field are analyzed. Attention is paid to the reinforcement of the information noise that accompanies administrative approaches to the improvement of the citation index. The roles and functions of publishers that deal with scientific_journal lit_ erature are investigated. The need for a strict ranking of scientific publications based on their scientific value established through high_quality peer review, as well as the difficulties in the organization of peer_review work, are highlighted. The possibility of organizing a centralized peer review of scholarly journal publications on the basis of peer_review centers is presented and discussed. It is assumed that this will help to eliminate one of the major barriers to open access to scientific articles.
The article examines the plethora of ideas regarding norms and deviations in late imperial Russia. Adapting criminal anthropology to the imperial situation, doctors and scientists examined the “natural-born criminal” as a collective category and created a comparative scale of imperial human diversity that allowed them to stigmatize entire groups. In the period between revolutions, the discourse on criminality underwent a semiotic shift from the signifier to the signified, conditioning a new image of the “internal savage,” one that was, however, hybrid and unstable. The following generation of psychiatrists was tasked with overcoming this duality, but this was only achieved in the early Soviet period, when the concept of the “natural-born criminal” was replaced by that of the “counterrevolutionary” and acquired an unambiguous, purely sociological sense.
Conversion disorder is defined by one or more physical symptoms that are not under voluntary control and are not thought to be caused by neurological or medical conditions. The key feature of this disorder is thus the incongruence between presented symptomology and medical conceptualizations of organic diseases. The most commonly observed conversion symptoms include blindness, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, paralyses, unresponsiveness, anesthesia, aphonia, and abnormal gait. There is no unified model for conversion disorder and its conceptualization relies on psychological, social, and biological factors. The onset of the symptoms is sudden, and is often preceded by either psychological or physical trauma. The diagnosis of conversion disorder is often problematic. Since the presenting symptoms of this psychiatric disorder are neurological, a full diagnosis often requires collaboration between a psychiatrist and a neurologist. Once the diagnosis has been made several treatment options may be considered. While there are no specific pharmacological or psychological treatments for conversion disorder, case reports suggest that a multidisciplinary approach in rehabilitation settings with an emphasis on maximizing physical function appear to be most beneficial.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.