Концентрация производства в агропромышленном и лесопромышленном комплексах и поляризация пространства России
The article considers the processes of the production and property deconcentration in the Russian agri- culture and forestry during the period of systemic economic crisis of 1990s and the processes of the produc- tion concentration and of the vertically-integrated companies formation during the period of compensato- ry industrialisation of 2000-s. Special attention is paid to impact these processes made on spatial organisa- tion of the rural areas of the Non-Black Soil region of the European part of Russia and on the socio-eco- nomic conditions of rural communities. The conclusion is made that agriculture and forestry — the loner (raw material supply j stages of the technological chains of the agri- and timber-industrial complexes — had suffered the most during the economic recession and has been usually becoming the objects, not the subjects, of the vertical integration during the subsequent economic growth.
This article is about Eliza Lucas Pinckney (1722–1793), probably the first important agriculturalist of the United States. She developed indigo as one of most important cash crops in colonial South Carolina. Eliza also experimented with large fig orchard, with flax, hemp and silk. The progressive education she gave her sons enabled them to play major roles in the American Revolution and in the government of the newly-formed United States of America. Later in life, British raids destroyed her property during the American War of Independence leaving her ruined financially.
This chapter is analysing french media market in its current situation. It collects main data about advertizing market and its structure, dinamics in 2009-2010. The structure of main assets of french media conglomerates (like Canal+, Hersant, Lagardere) is described as well. Main trends and changes in field of media concentration during second half of 2000s are presented. Separately chapter is analysing and presenting structure and dinamics of press market, television (including digital TV, public TV and commercial TV), radio and new media markets.
This volume explores problems in the history of science at the intersection of life sciences and agriculture, from the mid-eighteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Taking a comparative national perspective, the book examines agricultural practices in a broad sense, including the practices and disciplines devoted to land management, forestry, soil science, and the improvement and management of crops and livestock. The life sciences considered include genetics, microbiology, ecology, entomology, forestry, and deal with US, European, Russian, Japanese, Indonesian, Chinese contexts. The book shows that the investigation of the border zone of life sciences and agriculture raises many interesting questions about how science develops. In particular it challenges one to reexamine and take seriously the intimate connection between scientific development and the practical goals of managing and improving - perhaps even recreating - the living world to serve human ends. Without close attention to this zone it is not possible to understand the emergence of new disciplines and transformation of the old disciplines, to evalucate the role and impact of such major figures of science as Humboldt and Mendel, or to appreciate how much of the history of modern biology has been driven by national ambitions and imperialist expansion in competition with rival nations.
This empirical paper adds to competition and industrial organization literature by exploring the interplay between industry structure and competitiveness on local, rather than nation-wide, markets. We use micro-level statistical data for banks in two Russian regions (Bashkortostan and Tatarstan) to estimate Herfindahl-Hirschman index, Lerner index, and Panzar-Rosse model. We estimate Panzar-Rosse model in two ways: via the widely used price-equation that accounts for scale effects and then via a revenue-equation that disregards scale effects as suggested by Bikker, Shaffer and Spierdijk (2009). We find both regional markets to be ruled by monopolistic competition, although estimation by revenue-equation does not reject monopoly hypothesis for Tatarstan. Existence of sizeable locally-owned and operated institutions does not necessarily lead to higher competitiveness of the given regional market. Non-structural methods of estimation suggest that bank competition in Bashkortostan is stronger than in Tatarstan.
The article examines trends in fundraising of small industrial enterprises in Russia. There is an analysis of existing financial instruments of state support of small industrial companies, advantages and disadvantages. Despite the fact that an active government policy the past few years has greatly improved the ability of small industrial companies to attract the necessary funding, an imbalance in the amount of financial support at various stages of company development was revealed.
The present article contains an analysis of the practice of outsourcing in agriculture. Differences between outsourcing and other forms of interfirm cooperation are described. It is demonstrated that an agricultural company may function as an outsourcee. Ways of implementation of outsourcing in agriculture are proposed.
The paper analyzes how the agricultural sector applies outsourcing in its practice. What differs the outsourcing from other forms of cooperation of enterprises is identified. We show that an agro-enterprise could function as an outsourcee. Some ways of how outsourcing can be used in the agricultural production to make its profitability higher are proposed here.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.