Анализ и разработка методов внедрения скрытой информации в цифровые графические объекты
In this paper are shown methods of information protection and also algorithms of embedding of additional information into digital graphics images.
The steganography point is in that, the fact of confidential data existence in some container was a secret for the third parties. Methods of the digital steganography allow to hide an information in different digital objects: images, audio-and video files. In particular, information hiding in digital images can be used successfully for its subsequent imperceptible storage and transmission, for example, exchange of images in the Internet is a commonplace and will not draw attention. However changes made to data items of digital images in case of steganographic embedding can cause essential distortions of the received stego-image, and attachments can be found. Therefore the approach allowing to reduce quantity of the changes made to data items of digital images when embedding is offered. This approach is directed on increase in efficiency of steganographic embedding of information into a phase spectrum of the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) of digital images. Feature of the offered approach is minimization of quantity of changes made to frequency coefficients. The approach is applied for improvement of earlier developed (by authors of this paper) algorithm of faultless information embedding into a phase spectrum of the DFT of digital images. Computing experiments' results confirm that the offered approach allows to increase embedding quality and capacity of the image container at the same time.
The article deals with the current problem of ensuring security when developing embedded technologies for the Internet of things. The authors analyze modern technological features of this concept; consider the main vulnerabilities of information security. An approach is proposed to protect the data transferred between the physical, logical and virtual components of the dedicated Internet infrastructure of things. Distinctive features of the proposed approach are the intellectual analysis of messages transmitted in IoT and the use of digital watermarks for data transfer between IoT-devices.
The article proposes a mutual adaptation of the procedure for extracting digital watermark from video sequences and fingerprinting code decoding. Proposed solution includes two interrelated techniques. The first one is a usage of "soft" decision making instead of "hard" decision during watermark extraction. This means that the additional information on extracted bit reliability will be obtained from the hidden channel. The second one is an including of the reliability to decoding procedure. The use of such a solution allows more effective work of fingerprinting codes and achieves zero accusation error rates
Parameters that affect the perception quality of visual data has been investigated. Evaluation of such parameters due to distortion during filtering was determined. Segmentation methods according to colour and brightness similarity were discussed. Perceptive model for contrast sensitivity influence evaluation was discussed. The image region detection method for watermarking is suggested.
An approach to the detection of hidden information (stegocontainers) in the audio data of MP3 files based on neural network modeling is considered. A multilayer perceptron is used as the instrumental model of the neural network. The structural components of the MP3 file are analyzed: fields containing related information (song titles, album, information about the author, lyrics, etc.), and frames, and fragmented sets of encoded audio data. Useful data are highlighted. A procedure is proposed for presenting audio data of any MP3 file as a uniform set of features of a relatively small size. The dimension of the feature set (data set) can be selected from the range [100-520], in accordance with the minimum and maximum frame size, depending on the compression quality of a single audio file when encoded in MP3 format. Modern software packages for encrypting and decrypting stegocontainers into MP3 files are being investigated. Based on selected software implementations, a database of examples (data sets) is formed from pre-processed MP3 files both containing the stegocontainer and without the stegocontainer. The structure of the neural network for steganalysis of MP3 files is determined experimentally, it is trained and tested. The test results of the neural network system allow us to state its high efficiency
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.