Художественное своеобразие арабоязычной литературной традиции Судана ХХ в.
The article is dedicated to emergence and development of Arabic-language literature in Sudan in the middle of XX century (from Fifties till Seventies). Genesis of small prosaic forms – novel and short story. Specifics of appearance and evolution of small prosaic forms are being evaluated in the context of cultural landscape of the country, with special accent on inter-literature communication with other Arab Muslim countries,European cultural influence and interaction with African cultures. The development of major literary trends in narrative samples of Sudanese Arabic is considered in relation with its genetic origins and the impact factor of the pan-Arab literary tradition as well as artistic achievements of the West, while preserving African cultural component.
East and West are rapidly integrating in modern European discourse, melting into some new wholeness, which is still far from being homogeneous as cultural memory and traditions are strong and each nation does its best to avoid complete and irreversible integration. In the article devoted to the interaction of East and West on the example of the characters of John Lanchester's novel Capital London is also considered as a character, blurred and changeable, which needs to rediscover its own identity at the junction of East and West, different cultures embodied in the characters of the book. With the help of imagological approach and tools of intercultural communication the attitude of the characters to each other is being analyzed, their perception of others, their attempts to integrate or, on the contrary, to preserve their own cultural identity. All these processes determine not only the face of modern London, but also Europe in general, causing numerous problems and issues that are yet to be resolved. This process involves not only politicians and sociologists, but also writers, film directors, artists etc., who are rethinking and interpreting the reality using the language of different arts.
The present study suggests a generalization of the spatial autoregressive model for the case when considered regions are split into two different groups, which have a mutual influence on each other. The weighted matrix in this model is split into four parts and four spatial coefficients are estimated. The proposel model is applied for the analysis of three macroeconomic indicators using the data for Russian regions, previously divided into western and eastern. Our analysis revealed, 1) a positive spatial correlation of the main macroeconomic indicators for the western regions, 2) both positive and negative externalities for the eastern regions and 3) the asymmetric influence of eastern and western regions on each other. Usually "impulses" from the western regions have a positive effect on the eastern regions, but the "impulses" from the eastern regions usually do not affect the western regions.
The traditional perception of the Enlightenment as a cultural phenomenon, which was limited to European countries and their sphere of influence, was enriched by the perception of this era as a qualitatively new stage in global cultural interaction. The rapid development of contacts between Europe and other civilizations gave contemporaries rich pabulum for reflection on the unity and diversity of the fates of countries and peoples. Do the values closely related to the heritage of the European 18th century (i.e. the ideals of freedom, human rights, progress) have an absolute and universal character? Is it worth fighting to spread them more widely? Or should the inevitability of the coexistence of different value systems, not only in the world but also within individual countries be recognized? How, then, will they be integrated into the process of globalization? These questions, rooted in the Age of Enlightenment, are particularly relevant today.
The research presented in the article is carried out in the framework of narratology which has become extremely popular outside Literary Criticism, Linguistics and even philological disciplines as such. From narratological aspect the author addresses the issues of English late Modernism of the 1940s which has not yet received proper theoretisation. Modernism at this stage responds to the demands of the Realist age and at the same time apprehends the beginning of Postmodernist era.
The article focuses on the problem of transposition between unmediated objective (historical) and mediated subjective (narrated) realities within the fictitious world of the novel as well as between the text and the reality of the biographical author and reader. The basis for this transgression is narration as process which consequently binds a character with a character, a character with a narrator and the latter with the biographical author and reader. In the novel by Henry Green (whose oeuvre is virtually unknown in Russia) narration takes the form of reminiscences. The characters’ attempts to connect the present with the past reflect the implied reader’s perception of fictitious text and reality.
The article considers the problems of memory and representation of the past in British literature on the example of E. Waugh’s novel “Brideshead revisited”. Narratological approach explains the focus on the mechanism of recollecting the past, the subjects of recollection and the temporal system. The narrator and characters are compared and contrasted in terms of their narrative presentation of the past. The past, present and future in the novel are demonstrated to be of relative, permeable nature. Several models of temporal relations are created.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.