Влияние характера задачи на принятие групповых решений
The article describes the psychological aspect of social giftedness in a manager. It first focuses on the importance of studying social giftedness. It deals with theoretical aspects of the problem of abilities and professional qualities of a manager, and their social giftedness. It presents a pattern of social giftedness in a manager and the concept of social giftedness. In conclusion it addresses the selection of respondents for empirical justification and practical significance of the research.
This article focuses on methodological analysis and empirical study of moral climate of the group. In the established tradition, the phenomenon is examined very indirectly in the context of related psychological group formation and recently has begun to attract the interest of researchers both in our country and abroad. In our work, we on purpose in our work we restrict our research by the frames of cognitive approach, in order to more clearly understand its possibilities and limitations, with regard to this subject area. Results and conclusions of this study may be of interest to managers, psychologists, sociologists and a wide range of people interested in this matter.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.