Интерпретация грамматических категорий корейского глагола в теориях европейских лингвистов XIX века
This article introduces the verb’s categories offered by Europe linguists in second half of the 19th century. Description of the structure of the Korean language was made in comparison with the grammar of the European languages. Authors of the first Korean grammar based their theories on philosophical perceptions about universalism of grammatical standards represented by A. Arnauld and Cl. Lancelot in Port-Royal grammar.
Our study focuses on several classes of participles in the Izhma dialect of Komi-Zyrjan, as spoken in Muzhi. Many categories in Komi display significant variation with respect to their semantics and use. Reference grammar pay relatively little attention to contexts in which participles are used. In view of all this, description of an-participles in Komi-Zyrjan becomes an important problem. During our fieldwork trip we have verified the treatise of semantics and use of participles in existing literature for the correspondence to actual language practice of native speakers. Analysis of the contexts of use allowed us to determine the place occupied by an-participles in Komi-Zyrjan verbal system, outline zones of competition with other classes of participles and identify their main features.
There are two common relativization strategies in the Russian language: relativization with a relative pronoun kotoryj (roughly translatable to English that) and relativization with a participle. Even though these two constructions do not show signifi cant diff erence in meaning, they are not fully interchangeable. The Russian language has several documented contexts (also known as “factors”) which make one of the strategies more likely to appear in a sentence with the factor. These factors are not bound to each other. Therefore, they can appear in various combinations, including the cases when within one sentence there are two diff erent factors which trigger two diff erent strategies. We show that in such cases, relativization strategy will not be chosen randomly. There is a special confl ict-solving algorithm which we display as a result of our psycholinguistic experiment. In this experiment the respondents were to fi ll the gaps in the sentences with various factors combinations, using relative constructions. The analysis of how the ratio of the two strategies changed in the respondents’ answers depending on the factors present in the sentence confi rmed the hypothesis that the factors analyzed are ranked according to their importance for the choice of the strategy. The speaker, who is to make a choice between kotoryj and a participle, will not look for all the factors listed in this work at the same time. At every stage of the algorithm s/he will try to identify in the sentence one of the discussed factors, starting from the most important one and going down the ranks. When such a factor is found, one of the two relative strategies will be chosen and the algorithm will be stopped, even if some other, less important factors are yet unidentifi ed in the sentence.
The article is focused on the co-occurrence of different types of adverbs with participles of varying degrees of adjectivation in the modern Russian language. Examples of the use of adverbs and participial forms are given. Conclusions are drawn about the role of adverbs in the process of adjectivization.
The article is devoted to the new field of corpus linguistic that is the research of speech errors of native speakers. Mistakes of Russian-speaking students are considered in line with the grammar errors of A. Frey and modern research of non-standard texts. Special attention is paid to one of modern trends in non-standard speech – the usage of the excess participle. The linguistic mechanism of the error and the linguistic and social causes of the frequency of such occurrences are analyzed.