The article presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of the process of electric discharge sawing by wire tool electrode aimed at solving problems of control
Workplace mobbing and harassment in Russia started to receive scholarly attention in 2000’s. This is relatively late in comparison with the majority of developed countries. Today research on this topic is still limited and mostly addresses specific aspects (sexual harassment against women, correlation between harassment and HRM policies, psychological portrait of a mobber, etc).
Some data on harassment have been collected while investigating more general topics – for example gender discrimination and human trafficking. Such studies show the peculiarities of this phenomenon in Russia and the public attitude towards it.
One of the most recent and comprehensive surveys on harassment jointly conducted by US and Russian scholars demonstrates mixed attitude towards mobbing and harassment, at least when they involve women. About 25% of respondents are inclined to take an escapist approach, saying that there is nothing particularly wrong with the harasser’s behavior. This is supported with the fact that as many as 43% of respondents are of the opinion that the harasser shall not be punished, and 26% of them put the blame on victims. As many as 24% of interviewees would advise the victim to avoid conflict and defuse the situation with humor, while 22% of them would advise the victim to resign. The number of those who suggest taking more reasonable steps – seeking help from their principal or a lawyer – falls below 20%. The authors of the study observe that by and large Russian people do not believe that harassment and mobbing deserve serious consideration.
At the national level, sociological research on harassment reveals a widespread tendency to assume that it is the victim who provokes the harasser (by means of a certain behavior, make-up, clothing, etc.) and that harassment and even violence is either a logical outcome of or a fair punishment for this.
Some differences have been found in the general attitude towards this issue when it comes to the harasser’s gender. A male harasser is treated with sympathy and considered just slightly too ‘passionate’ or too playful, while a female one would be accused of acting with impudence. This aspect shows that the traditional perception of women as ‘the root of all evil’ is still widespread in Russia despite all the political, economic and social changes that took place in the last century.
In today’s Russia the victim’s reaction to harassment is usually a passive one. People prefer to keep this embarrassing experience to themselves or to resign if things go too far. An intention to resist, to protect the victim’s rights and/or to sue the harasser is often perceived as a strange and disproportionate reaction to a minor issue.
It would have been interesting to compare these results with those concerning harassment against men. It would have been likewise interesting to investigate the relations (if any) between the statistics on harassment and mobbing, being them considered as two different forms of workplace violence. Unfortunately, no comparable studies have been found and there are reasons to believe that they do not exist at all. Apart from some scattered research projects, the data on mobbing and harassment come primarily from the press. A newspaper article is published from time to time considering a particular group that has become the target of male harassment (taxi drivers, chauffeurs, accountants, bodyguards, mid-level managers) or a mobbing occurrence in a particular sector (the army, the office, and so forth). Newspaper articles usually contain an overview of the opinions of various stakeholders on the problem, which vary from legislative initiatives to amend the Criminal Code - which still lacks some necessary provisions, for instance those allowing to protect men from being raped – to skeptical comments reflecting the widespread belief that the problem has been greatly and groundlessly exaggerated.
 For instance, a more or less consistent case law on sexual harassment emerged in the USA as early as in the XIX century, while the relevant legislation was developed in 1970’s. Research on mobbing as a psychological phenomenon dates back to H. Leymann’s works published in 1980’s. See also R.B. Siegel, A short history of sexual harassment, in C.A. MacKinnon, R.B. Siegel (eds.), Directions in sexual harassment law, Yale University Press, 2003, 1-39, and H. Leymann, Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces, in Violence and Victims, 1990, vol. 5, 119-126 (where reference is made to the first studies on this topic).
 O.I. Osipova, Vzaimosvyaz organizatzionnoi kultury i fenomena harassmenta (Interrelation between organizational culture and the harassment phenomenon), in Chelovecheskiy capital (Human capital), 2012, no. 12(48), 28-30, http://www.imtp.ru/upload/medialibrary/1d0/1d001c5446d6033dead95e79694a8c44.pdf (accessed May 05, 2013).
 Based on the analysis of the papers published in Russian since 1990 (and collected in the Russian State Library databases: http://www.rsl.ru/ru/s97/s977242/, on the Federal Legal Portal “Jurudicheskaya Rissiya” (“Juridical Russia”): http://www.law.edu.ru/search/search.asp?docType=0 and in the Russian Index of Scientific Citation (RINTZ): http://elibrary.ru/project_risc.asp). The analysis took into account the variations in the Russian terminology used in different contexts and branches of science.
 See: O. Stuchevskaya, Harassment i rossiyskie jenschiny (Harassment and Russian women), in Vestnik obschestvennogo mneniya (Public opinion bulletin), 2008, no. 4(96), 43-49, http://ecsocman.hse.ru/text/33513026/ (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). This Bulletin is published by “Levada-Center”, a major Russian nongovernmental center of sociological and marketing research: http://www.levada.ru/. A presentation of the statistical outcomes of the same joint research project is available in English at the CSIS website: http://csis.org/files/media/csis/events/081208_csis_gender_presentation.pdf. In this paper, I use the findings of this almost unique research project as one of the major statistical and sociological sources.
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.
 See f.i.: Ph. Vivian, The churches and the modern thought, London, Watts, 1911, 277-286 (in particularly, citations on p. 284).
 See: ‘Rossiyskie mujchiny sokrushayutsya, chto harassment obhodit ih storonoy’ (‘Russian men grieve that harassment passes them over’). A sociological research conducted by the Research center of the SuperJob.ru website, 08.09.2008, http://www.superjob.ru/community/kollektiv/18364/ (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013).
 O. Stuchevskaya, op.cit.; S.S. Balabanov, Z.H.-M. Saralieva, Seksualnye domogatelstva na rabote v Rossii (Sexual harassment at work in Russia), in Vestnik Nijegorodskogo Universiteta (Bulletin of the Nijniy Novgorod University), 2010, vol. 1, 7-12, http://22.214.171.124:2139/item.asp?id=15142471 (in Russian, accessed May 02, 2013); Ya.I. Alferova, Sravnitelniy analiz socialno-psihologicheskih harakteristik sotrudnikov, podvergayuschihsya mobbing v organizatziyah (Comparative analysis of socio-psychological characteristics of staff members exposed to mobbing in organizations), in Sovremennye issledovaniya socialnyh problem (Modern Research in Social Problems), 2012, vol. 11(19), 42-50, http://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=18763977 or http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnitelnyy-analiz-sotsialno-psihologicheskih-harakteristik-sotrudnikov-podvergayuschihsya-mobbingu-v-organizatsiyah (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013); etc.
 See: D. Prihodko, ‘Shef, trogay!’ Taksisty prosyat zaschitit ih ot seksualnyh domogatelstv passajirok (‘Chef, get going!’ Taxi drivers demand a protection from being sexually harassed by female passengers), in AiF St Petersburg newspaper, 26.03.2013, http://www.spb.aif.ru/society/article/56070 (in Russian, accessed April 28, 2013). See also: Z.A. Hotkina, Mujchiny – jertvy seksualnyh domogatelstv (Male sexual harassment victims), Center for Social and Labor Rights (CSLP), http://trudprava.ru/index.php?id=1534 (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013).
 G. Bryntzeva, Mobbing dik, in Rossiiskaya gazeta. Federalniy vypusk (Russian Newspaper. Federal Issue), 2010, no. 5139(60), http://www.rg.ru/2010/03/24/mobbing.html (in Russian, accessed April 29, 2013). The article presents an interview with a director of the Clinical psychology department of the Scientific Center of Mental Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.
 D. Prihodko, op.cit.
Over the past decade Russia has experienced stable economic growth with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growing by 7 percent per year from 1998 to 2007. While the nation still enjoys a relatively healthy growth rate, analysis shows that the sources for the future growth are limited and to boost growth Russia should rely on increasing labor productivity. Improving productivity will impose new demands on Russia's workforce requiring better skills to satisfy the needs of economy growth. The international business environment survey reports that Russia's private sector considers the lack of skills and education of workers to be the most severe constraint on its expansion and growth. Despite the very high level of formal education attained by Russian workers the problem behind this may be explained by the current quality and content of education, which does not develop the necessary skills and competences demanded by the labor market. This report examines the reasons and the consequences of this skills deficit, which constrain productivity and limits innovation ultimately stifling accelerated economic growth in Russia. The objectives of the report are: 1) to deepen the understanding of the structure and composition of this skills deficit by analyzing in detail the demand for and supply of particular cognitive and non-cognitive skills; 2) to review the capacity and problems of the current systems for skills provision in Russia both through the public and private provision thereby identifying some of the underlying reasons for this skills gap; and 3) to support the development of evidence-based policy making in professional education and training, which will lead to a system better responding to the challenges of the economy and labor market.
In this paper, we consider the following problem - what affects the amount of investment in knowledge when one of the network firms enters another innovation network. The solution of this problem will allow us to understand exactly how innovative companies will behave when deciding whether to enter the innovation network of another country or region, what conditions affect it and how the level of future investments in knowledge can be predicted.
Our results suggest a more nuanced view of Russian privatization than that offered by either its critics or its defenders. We confirm earlier findings that the average impact on productivity of privatization to domestic owners is around -3 to -5 percent, though some regions show productivity gains similar to those in Central Europe (an increase of 10 to 20 percent). The regional variation is strongly positively associated with the size of the regional bureaucracy. Notwithstanding the average negative effect, our updated results through 2005 (the most recent year for which comparable data are available) show a pronounced change after 2002 as the productivity effects of Russian privatization have begun to approach those seen elsewhere much earlier. Privatization became most effective west of the Urals, in areas with greater market access. Initially an outlier, by 2005 Russia appeared to be becoming more of a “normal country,” at least in the narrow sense of the impact of private ownership on firm productivity.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.