Calculation of time-dependent flows of sputtered material in the asymmetric alternating current glow discharge
Diffusion transport of material sputtered from the surface of the powered electrode in the asymmetric alternating current discharge is theoretically studied. It is shown that amplitudes of the non-stationary component of the sputtered atom (SA) flow densities at the electrodes depend on the discharge frequency and two dimensionless parameters, which are functions of the SA mass, its mean free path length in the background gas and the distance between the electrodes. It is found that diffusion damping of the time-varying component of the SA number density takes place in the discharge volume under certain conditions and their flows at the electrodes can be considered as time-independent.
This edition presents abstracts of the reports of the Meeting and Youth Conference on Neutron Scattering and Synchrotron Radiationin Condensed Matte (NSSR-CM-2014)r
A two-dimensional model of a sintered electrode activator (in particular, barium) transport in the arc discharge lamp tube volume, based on numerical solution of the non-stationary diffusion equation, is developed. The dependence of the barium atoms flow density at the electrode rod tip on fill gas pressure and electrode dimensions is investigated. It is found that the main mechanism of their transport to the rod tip is evaporation from the sintered mass surface and diffusion through the gas. Evolution of tungsten rod emission characteristics caused by deposition of the evaporated material at its surface is experimentally studied.
In his reasoning concerning the relationship between surface or visible superficies (understood as the boundary or the limit of a body) and color (De sensu 439a19–b17), Aristotle asserts that the Pythagoreans called the surface (ἐπιφάνεια) color (χροιά), i.e. that they made no terminological difference between the former and the latter. In the scholarship on early Pythagoreans, this passage has been usually used as an indirect proof for the inaccuracy of attribution to the early Pythagoreans (1) of the abstract notion of surface (as found in Plato and Euclid), and thereby (2) of various forms of “derivation theory”. We argue that the colour-surface-limit doctrine has great significance for the understanding of the early Pythagorean concept of a number, since they articulated it, in various ways, precisely through the notion of a limit.
The book is an introduction to the qualitative theory of dynamical systems on manifolds of low dimension (on the circle and on surfaces). Along with classical results, it reflects the most significant achevements in this area obtained in recent times. The reader of this book need to be familiar only with basic courses in differential equations and smooth manifolds.
Main regularities of the influence of the air adsorbate on the interpretation of images of thin metal films were experimentally determined in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Modification of the surface relief of a thin film of Pt was made in air.Effect of formation of surface structures of 50-100 nm, a cluster of polarized adsorbate molecules by a strong electric field in the electrode gap, was defined. Tunnel voltage and current threshold values of irreversible relief changes was obtained. Technique of local adsorbate removal from the test surface area was developed by pulse contactless interaction of STM electrodes.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.