Transfer pricing rules, oecd guidelines, and market distortions
We study the impact of transfer pricing rules on sales prices, ﬁrms’ organizational structure, and consumers’ utility within a two-country monopolistic competition model featuring source-based proﬁt taxes that differ across countries. Firms can either become multinationals, i.e., they serve the foreign market through a fully controlled affiliate; or they can become exporters, i.e., they serve the foreign market by contracting with an independent distributor. Compared to the benchmark cases, where tax authorities are either unable to audit ﬁrms or where they are able to audit them perfectly, the use of the OECD’s Comparable Uncontrolled Price (CUP) or Cost-Plus (CP) rule distorts ﬁrms’ output and pricing decisions. The reason is that the comparable arm’s length transactions between exporters and distributors, which serve as benchmarks, are not efficient. We show that implementing the CUP or CP rules is detrimental to consumers in the low tax country, yet beneﬁts consumers in the high tax country.
Article presents the idea, that if the demand on a product can be described with high-elasticity of price, decrease in price can determine an increase in total revenue, but not necessary – in total margin (profitability). From one side the overstated prices on the product will decrease the intensity of its sales, from another side – will decrease the return on working capital, which is used for wholesale purchasing. Also it will increase risks of expiration period exceeding in retail network. Article considers questions of rational price setting and increase in efficiency of working capital employment for trade company.
Description of the method of financial and economic calculations that can use the management companies, determining the acceptability of proposed changes in prices based on price elasticities of demand.
The new approach to parity of prices is the subject of article. The base of this approach is estimation of parameters of model for comparison of prices between countries. The disparity of the prices is defined as a sharp deviation of the price from the parity. Milk is taken as an example. The model on which the parity of the prices is defined, has been developed for the longterm prices fore- casting. The realization of the certain scenario of development of a national economy is a base of such forecasting
The book addresses the major challenges of effective management of pricing in retail.
The article provides an overview of the methods of marketing research, which can be most useful for retail companies in assessing the possible reaction of buyers to certain pricing decisions.
Description of methods for analysis of sustainability for the company of the intended price changes.
This article is devoted to the analysis of the key elements of marketing strategies of the Private Wealth Management on the world market. In the article the trends in the traditional product line arisen from the recent crises and the widespread of the principle of «open architecture» are identified. There is also a short description of types of brand creation in Private Wealth Management. The main business models affecting the distribution channels of Private Banking services are considered, and the main approaches to the pricing on the market of Private Banking are presented.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.