Исследование эффективности методов оптимизации проекта с ограниченными ресурсами. Часть 1
Resource-constrained project scheduling problem is one of the most important one in project management because optimization could lead to shortening project makespan at 20% and more percent and increasing resource usage.
The problem of minimizing project makespan under resource constrained is one of the most popular problem within mathematical models of project management more over 50 years. Nowadays applying exact optimization methods is impossible in real practice of project manager. So heuristic methods are used in solving such problems. The vast majority of such methods are x-pass heuristics based on applying several rules to one project. If any new schedule produced by this method use random numbers such methods called sampling methods. In this paper, the review of sampling methods will be done and research of these methods will be performed on the base of PSPLIB project library. In addition, new scheduling sampling method based on combining several scheduling schemes and priority rules will be produced. The main idea of this research is to build a system, which could help to choose the set of schema and priority rule combinations to make a best sampling method on the base of RBRS. It was established that there are no reasons to apply “bad priority rules” such as SPT, LPT, GRD and so on. It’s enough to use WCS, SLK, LST, MTS with different directions and serial and parallel schemes. Another interesting result is that after approximately 70 iterations of sampling, the best priority rule is WCS or RND (if we exclude WCS, IRSM and ACS rules). So new method based on combining MTS, SLK, LST, LFT with different schemes are produced and efficiency of this method is depicted in fig.7. The method used RBRS with rules which cyclic replace each other on each iteration. List of these rules depicted in left side of fig.7.
Developing this subject, the author evaluates efficiency of various straight- through priority rules, used in constructive heuristic methods meant for reducing completion periods of projects with constrained renewable re- sources. Special attention is given to the so-called hybrid algorithms and dependence between efficiency of priority rules and network capacity. Efficiency of rules is analyzed based on sets of 480 PSPLIB projects: J30, J60, J90.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management