Формализованные методы исследования текстов: опыт применения к анализу технической документации
A method for conceptual maps construction is presented and applied to three different domains. A conceptual map is graph, where nodes stand for domain specific concepts and edges connect associated concepts. The conceptual map reveals and visualizes the logical asso- ciations between concepts, which exist in the collection of texts, used to construct the conceptual map. Preliminary work on conceptual map analysis is suggested.
Human Factors and Ergonomics have made a considerable contribution to the research, design, development, operation and analysis of transportation systems which includes road and rail vehicles and their complementary infrastructure, aviation and maritime transportation. This book presents recent advances in the Human Factors aspects of Transportation. These advances include accident analysis, automation of vehicles, comfort, distraction of drivers (understanding of distraction and how to avoid it), environmental concerns, in-vehicle systems design, intelligent transport systems, methodological developments, new systems and technology, observational and case studies, safety, situation awareness, skill development and training, warnings and workload.
Due to the lack of multilingual and multimedia extremist collections and advanced analytical methodologies, our empirical understanding of the Internet or dark web is still very limited. Content mining and intelligence inside the Internet becomes more and more a challenge to different bodies from security, financial organizations (e.g. financial intelligence units “FIU”) and law enforcement agencies. Tracking of large digital information from various sources like public Internet, dark web, long tail web or blogs and other social networks creates new challenges to the research community. A first test is to create intelligent crawlers that can identify any link in the web and extract the digital footprint from the web page. Some of the key challenge that we face are in the area of automatic multilingual text analysis, the harmonization of extracted knowledge and the unique identity resolution. Taxonomies and thesauruses do not offer a complete solution for the automatic discovery of hidden relations or newly defined expressions for named entities. In order to understand shadow groups we need to apply advanced technologies from artificial intelligence and computation linguistics. In this paper we will share our experience which we developed from various projects in Europe, Russia and Central Asia. We will discuss how an ontology-driven information extraction approach from large multilingual document collections can help to create an understanding and therefore valuable knowledge. We will further demonstrate how to solve the merging of various ontologies used for different domains and languages using the concept of upper ontology and conclude the discussion by sharing insights on how to create rules for automatic identity resolution for specific named entities.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
This article presents the analysis of blogs — a new text type in the Internet. The texts are discussed from the perspective of text linguistics. Nowadays, Internet texts gain increasing popularity with the users; however, traditional methods of text linguistics are not capable of revealing the many-sided nature and uniqueness of the given types of texts. Therefore, introduction of new criteria of the analysis and estimation are essential for the fundamental analysis of the new phenomena in text linguistics.
There have been implemented engineering and development of multi-agent recommender system «EZSurf» that performs analysis of interests and provides recommendations for the social network «VKontakte» users based on the data from profile of particular user. During the work process different methods and technological solutions have been analyzed with examination of their advantages and disadvantages. Besides of that the comparative analysis of analogous products has been held where the most similar is Russian start-up service - Surfingbird. Based on this analysis the decision of recommender system implementation and integration has been accepted. The feature of this system is that it uses social network “VKontakte” profile for user’s data collection and API of third-party services (LastFM, TheMovieDB) for an extraction of information about similar objects. Such an approach contributes into optimization of recommender system, because it does not require creation of its own object classification system and objects database. The functionality of multi-agent system was separated between three agents. First agent (Collector) collects user data from “VKontakte” profile using VK API. Second agent (Analyzer) collects similar objects from databases of thitd-party services (LastFM, TheMovieDB) that will be the criteria for further search of recommendatory content. For search and selection of information an agent (Recommender) that works as web-crawler has been implemented. System «EZSurf» can be exploited by the users of social network “VKontakte” in everyday life for time economy on web-surfing process. At the same time they will get recommendations on content that are filtered depending on preferences of every particular user.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.