Инженерно-экономическое образование как ускоритель инновационного развития
The paper brings up the question of the role of the university community in the implementation of modernization programs in the Russian regions. The article analyzes the theoretical and methodological foundations of the study of modernization processes and innovations, determines their place and role in the socio-cultural environment, identifies the main approaches to the development of innovative programs and their constituents. The author reveals the conditions for the development of innovative potential of the regional universities and the main problems affecting the development of innovative activity of universities. The article shows the mechanisms of modernization processes, the development of regional innovation activities, which will enhance the efficiency of research and production activities, its adaptation to the market economy. The author has studied the main conditions for the emergence, development and successful commercialization of innovation. The article analyzes the rating data of socio-economic development of regions of the Central Chernozem region, as well as the features of innovative development in the Kursk region. The author presents the results of a field sociological research devoted to the assessment of innovative activity of students of higher educational institutions of Kursk and Voronezh regions. The study is aimed to determine the level of development of modernization processes in the region and the attitudes of students, identified through their focus on innovation, including interests, goals and motives associated with innovations. The article explores the understanding of innovation by young respondents, presents the involvement of students in these regions in research activities. The author suggests that the solution of the problems of formation the innovative behavior of Russian youth can contribute to the involvement of this social group of the society to the implementation of the modernization of the main spheres of life of modern Russian society.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.