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Time Perspective Profiles of Cultures

P. 169-187.
Sircova A., van de Vijver F. J., Osin E. N., Milfont T. L., Fieulaine N., Kislali-Erginbilgic A., Zimbardo P.

This chapter summarises some results of the International Time Perspective Research Project, which is a collaborative cross-cultural study of time perspective carried out in 24 countries. The highlights of structural equivalence assessment study are presented, showing the cross-cultural invariance of 36 items of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale. The associations between country-level ZTPI scores and other culture-level indicators, including Human Development Index, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, are presented and discussed. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, 5 distinct profiles of time perspective were found (future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced, moderately fatalistic, and negative), and significant differences in the prevalence of these profiles across cultures were found. Implications and perspectives for future research are discussed.