Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research, and Application
This book is about time and its powerful influence on our personal and collective daily life. It presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date overview of contemporary knowledge on temporal psychology inspired by Zimbardo's work on Time Perspective (TP). With contributions from renowned and promising researchers from all over the globe, and at the interface of social, personality, cognitive and clinical psychology, the handbook captures the breadth and depth of the field of psychological time. Time perspective, as the way people construe the past, the present and the future, is conceived and presented not only as one of the most influential dimensions in our psychological life leading to self-impairing behaviors, but also as a facet of our person that can be de-biased and supportive for well-being and happiness. Written in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo on his 80th birthday and in acknowledgement of his leading role in the field, the book contains illustrations of the countless studies and applications that his theory has stimulated, and captures the theoretical, methodological and practical pathways he opened by his prolific research.
The authors discuss the differences between time management programs and time perspective coaching and explore the possibilities of applying Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the coaching process. Based on the analysis of an individual time perspective profile, the coach may choose from a range of interventions suggested in this chapter. Specific interventions focused on overcoming the drawbacks of past-negative and present-fatalistic outlooks on time, as well as fostering the advantages of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive time perspectives are presented together with questions aimed to help clients in gaining a better understanding and new insights in each of the time perspective domains. A separate section discusses the potential of mindfulness interventions in fostering balanced time perspective.
This chapter summarises some results of the International Time Perspective Research Project, which is a collaborative cross-cultural study of time perspective carried out in 24 countries. The highlights of structural equivalence assessment study are presented, showing the cross-cultural invariance of 36 items of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale. The associations between country-level ZTPI scores and other culture-level indicators, including Human Development Index, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, are presented and discussed. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, 5 distinct profiles of time perspective were found (future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced, moderately fatalistic, and negative), and significant differences in the prevalence of these profiles across cultures were found. Implications and perspectives for future research are discussed.
This chapter provides a detailed analysis of one of the central concepts of Zimbardo and Boyd’s time perspective theory: the balanced time perspective. Since their earliest works in the area, the issue of temporal harmony attracted attention of researchers and practitioners alike, especially within the field of positive psychology. Here, we provide a deepened consideration of the nature of balanced time perspective, its origins, and consequences. Moreover, we review the existing empirical operationalizations of temporal harmony, both those derived from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and those created independently from it. We analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each method and reflect on future directions in research on the balanced time perspective issue.