The Role of the State: BRICS National Systems of Innovation
This series of books brings together results of an intensive research programme on aspects of the national systems of innovation in the five BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It provides a comprehensive and comparative examination of the challenges and opportunities faced by these dynamic and emerging economies. In discussing the impact of innovation with respect to economic, geopolitical, socio-cultural, institutional and technological systems, it reveals the possibilities of new development paradigms for equitable and sustainable growth. This volume, first in the series, analyses the relationship between the state and the evolution of the national systems of innovation. Putting forward several valuable considerations and policy recommendations, it argues that the experiences and knowledge gathered here may deeply impact the way we conceive of the theory of innovation systems, and implement policies and strategies for their development. Original and detailed data together with expert analyses by contributing authors on wide-ranging issues will make this an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as for policy-makers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.
The chapter has represented an overview of Russian S&T and innovation sphere, emphasizing the most recent trends and policies. In the USSR the innovation system existed in narrow «scientific – technological» space. Scientific results and innovation were created and introduced on the basis of the centralized decisions of the government, and in the areas connected to the main State’ interests. The term «national system of innovation» (NSI) was never used, and the actual NSI wasn't considered worthy of research or special government policy. Only in the last decades a comprehension of a key role of innovations and the necessity of wider understanding NSI as systems of national institutes has arisen. The article shows how this understanding and the new approaches have been transformed in Russian S&T&I policy. The paper refers to a contemporary discussion of S&T&I activities in Russia and respective national policies against the background of institutional transformation. It emphasises the Russian NSI structure and subsequent positioning of its different agents. The analysis makes it evident that innovation activity is strongly challenged by various interdependent hampering factors. Some of these factors arise directly from traditional barriers far beyond S&T&I activities. Government policy is a major factor and an impulse promoting development of the Russian NSI model which would ensure efficient use of the country's R&D and innovation potential to speed up economic growth and improve the quality of life. However, Russian experience sometimes provides examples when government initiatives turn into serious barriers. The author shows some evident «inefficient zones» in the Russian S&T&I. One would like to hope that dealing with the existing problems won't be postponed "until better times" yet again, like it has been done 20 years ago.