New approach to classical thermodynamics
The author constructs a new conception of thermodynamics which is based on new results in number theory. We consider a maximally wide range of gases, liquids, and fluids to which, in principle, the Carathéodory approach can be applied. The Carathéodory principle is studied using the Lennard-Jones potential as an example. On the basis of this example, we analyze the dispersive structure of a fluidwhose density exceeds the critical value. We introduce a new parameter, the “jamming factor,” which determines the jamming effect for such fluids. A comparison with experimental data for nonpolar molecules is carried out. The phase transition “liquid-amorphous solid” is studied in detail in the domain of negative pressures. We discuss the theoretical relationship between the obtained solutions and econophysics, some mysteries in biology, and other sciences.