Understanding discourse-linked processes in agrammatic and fluent aphasia: a threefold study in Russian
Agrammatic speakers have problems with grammatical encoding and decoding. However, not all syntactic processing are equally problematic: present- time –reference /who-questions/ reﬂexives can be processed by narrow syntax alone and are relatively spared compared to past - time –reference / which-questions/ that need additional access to discourse and information structures to link to their referent outside the clause (Avrutin , 2006). Agrammatic aphasic speakers ﬁnd it more difﬁcult to produce and comprehend verb forms that refer to the past than verb forms that refer to the non-past (Bastiaanse, 2011). The same holds for which-questions compared to who-questions and for pronouns compared to reﬂexives (Avrutin , 2006).