The article reflects undertaken worldwide steps to build the bioeconomy. Bioeconomy is a set of industries, from the point of view of economy, and a plurality of cross-industry research, in terms of global science. All this leads to difficulty in understanding the boundaries of bioeconomy, developing within the traditional economies. The article also presents the main instruments of support and development of biotechnology and bioeconomy in Russia, such as the National Technology Initiative (NTI), the Federal Targeted Programme for Research and Development in Priority Areas of Advancement of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014-2020 (action 2.2). The influence of the international scientific and technological programs (Horizon 2020, ERA-NET) on the regional economy was also estimated.