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Exploring innovation modes of Russian companies: what does the diversity of actors mean for policymaking?

Recent studies of innovation behavior characteristics focus on analysis of microdata (enterprise level) as the key instrument to reveal facts and hypotheses describing the innovation activities under diverse economic, political and infrastructural conditions. This paper applies the state-of-the-art innovation modes approach [OECD, 2008] to provide insights on the Russian innovation environment, highlighting the variation of innovation strategies across sectors of Russian industry. Cross-country comparison based on the OECD data and Russian firm-level findings is presented along with the discussion of possible development of systemic instruments and evidence-based methods for policymaking.