This article examines the relationship between value orientations and Entrepreneurial Intention according to Reasoned Action Approach. The empirical base of this study late on the results of a representative survey conducted in 2 regions of Russia (Central Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District). The total sample included 2,061 respondents. Interviews were conducted with representative samples of 1,026 respondents from the Central Federal District of Russia, including Moscow, and 1,035 respondents from the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. It was selected a subsample (269 pers.) from this sample. The subsample was composed of the respondents intending to open a business in the next 2 years. The results of research carried out in the framework of Reasoned Action Approach, allowed us to confirm the validity of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Russian sample. The questionnaire included methods related to the assessment of values (PVQ-R), entrepreneurial intentions, and demographic variables.
To establish convergent and divergent validity of all the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour, attitude toward the behaviour, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention as well as the additionally introduced concept of implementation intention, we tested our measurement model simultaneously for all measures. For this purpose we conducted a simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation for estimating all parameters.
It was also found that the value of Self-Direction (Action) is positively associated with the components of model of entrepreneurial planned behavior (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control). Value of Security (Personal) is negatively associated with attitude toward idea of opening a new business.
New notion “socio-psychological capital” is proposed and operationalized. From the author’s point of view, socio-psychological capital is a certain psychological relations that are a basis for social capital forming. I. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is used as theoretical bases for entrepreneurial behavior study. It is shown that there is an infl uence of some components of socio-psychological capital (institutional trust, social trust and perceived social capital) on socio-cognitive phenomena underlying the intention to open person’s own business. It is stated that socio-psychological capital does not infl uence directly on intention to open one’s own business.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.