This article examines the relationship between value orientations and Entrepreneurial Intention according to Reasoned Action Approach. The empirical base of this study late on the results of a representative survey conducted in 2 regions of Russia (Central Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District). The total sample included 2,061 respondents. Interviews were conducted with representative samples of 1,026 respondents from the Central Federal District of Russia, including Moscow, and 1,035 respondents from the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. It was selected a subsample (269 pers.) from this sample. The subsample was composed of the respondents intending to open a business in the next 2 years. The results of research carried out in the framework of Reasoned Action Approach, allowed us to confirm the validity of the Theory of Planned Behavior in the Russian sample. The questionnaire included methods related to the assessment of values (PVQ-R), entrepreneurial intentions, and demographic variables.
To establish convergent and divergent validity of all the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour, attitude toward the behaviour, social norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention as well as the additionally introduced concept of implementation intention, we tested our measurement model simultaneously for all measures. For this purpose we conducted a simultaneous confirmatory factor analysis using maximum likelihood estimation for estimating all parameters.
It was also found that the value of Self-Direction (Action) is positively associated with the components of model of entrepreneurial planned behavior (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control). Value of Security (Personal) is negatively associated with attitude toward idea of opening a new business.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
New notion “socio-psychological capital” is proposed and operationalized. From the author’s point of view, socio-psychological capital is a certain psychological relations that are a basis for social capital forming. I. Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior is used as theoretical bases for entrepreneurial behavior study. It is shown that there is an infl uence of some components of socio-psychological capital (institutional trust, social trust and perceived social capital) on socio-cognitive phenomena underlying the intention to open person’s own business. It is stated that socio-psychological capital does not infl uence directly on intention to open one’s own business.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.