Learning and working: types of combining university studies with employment
The existing findings on the relationship between optimism and academic performance are rather contradictory. Two studies were undertaken to investigate thе relationship between attributional style, well-being, and academic performance. A new Russian-language measure of attributional style for positive and negative events (Gordeeva, Osin, Shevyakhova, 2009) with stability, globality, and controllability subscales was used. In the first study, optimistic attributional style for good events was associated with higher academic achievement in high school students (N=225) and mediated the effect of academic performance on self-esteem. In the second study, pessimistic attributional style for negative events predicted success in passing three difficult written entrance examinations in university entrants (N=108), and optimistic attributional style for good events predicted success with success expectations as a mediator. The results indicate that attributional styles for positive and negative events are not uniform in their relationship to performance in different academic settings and to well-being variables.
The publication, prepared by experts from the Institute of Education at the Higher School of Economics and the World Bank, provides a comprehensive assessment of possible losses for school education and human capital in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as possible ways to minimize and compensate them.
The publication includes three sections. The first section, based on data (quasi-experimental studies of the effects of school closures due to cataclysms, non-attendance by individual students of schools, studies of losses during the summer break), discusses the hypotheses about the extent of possible losses in student knowledge in the conditions of termination of full-time education. The second section is devoted to the analysis of three scenarios in connection with a pandemic and the forecasting of changes in the learning curve of schoolchildren. The third section examines the longer-term effects of the current crisis on the future earnings of current students and the overall economic situation.
The publication includes practical recommendations and suggestions on educational policy measures that can be implemented to minimize and compensate for the negative impact of the pandemic.
This work is of interest, both for researchers in the field of school education, and for leaders of the educational system at different levels, principals and teachers of schools.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов специальностей «Государственное и муниципальное управление», «Государственное управление и право», «Государственное управление и экономика», «Управление информационными ресурсами» «Управление и аналитика в государственном секторе». Пособие содержит обширный материал, необходимый для развития навыков академического чтения и письма на английском языке.
Задачей пособия является освоение академических навыков на основе специальных текстов, расширение и систематизация навыков академического письма, необходимых для написания курсовых работ и эссе на английском языке. Пособие содержит теоретический материал, примеры вополнения заданий, а также упражнения составлены на основе требований, предъявляемых к написанию научных работ на иностранном языке. В пособии предлагаются ссылки на научные сайты, аутентичные источники, включающие современные издания.
В целом пособие способствует повышению уровня иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции и направлено на формирование компетенций, необходимых для использования английского языка в учебной, научной, и профессиональной деятельности.
Материал апробирован в процессе обучения студентов НИУ ВШЭ Санкт-Петербург.
Пособие может быть использовано для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов. Пособие может быть полезно как студентам первокурсникам, так и студентам старших курсов вузов, а также широкому кругу лиц, изучающих английский язык.
Perseverance has a rather long history of study within achievement motivation literature (McClelland, 1961, 1987; Heckhausen, 1980, 1989) and recently in positive psychology as one of the important character strengths (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Peterson & Seligman defined it as voluntary continuation of action or behavior that is goal directed and typically in the face of difficulty or obstacles.
Recently a new similar construct appeared in psychology, namely grit which was defined as perseverance and passion for long-term goals (Duckworth et al., 2007). Grit was found to be a predictor of different types of educational attainment among variety of samples. Our own studies confirmed this relation, grit accounted for 8% of the variance in academic achievement of university students (Gordeeva et al., 2011; Gordeeva & Sychev, 2012). The role of perseverance or grit couldn’t be overestimated as it’s a source of achievement in every field. However, it remains unclear what lays behind grit or persistence, what moves a person to display grit? The aim of present study is to investigate the motivational antecedents of grit.
In accordance with structural-dynamic model of achievement motivation (Gordeeva, 2006, 2011) it was hypothesized that three sources of perseverance could be distinguished: 1) a module standing from the profile of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, 2) self-regulatory module responsible for effective goal attainment, including self-control and purposefulness, and 3) cognitive components module including positive expectations, optimistic attributional style, and self-efficacy.
To measure perseverance and motivational variables a battery of tests was used including Grit scale (Duckworth et al., 2007, alpha Cronbach for Russian version for perseverance of effort .70, for consistency of interest .80), Aidman’s perseverance scale (1990), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientation scale (Amabile et al., 1994), Flow scale (Leontiev, 2008), academic motivation scale (AMS-C, Vallerand et al., 1992), self-control scale (Tangney et al., 2004), hope scale (Snyder et al., 1991), academic self-control scale (Perry et al., 2001), modified version of ASQ (Peterson et al., 1982, Gordeeva et al., 2009), and LOT (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
The sample comprised 432 participants, students from three departments Moscow State University and from four departments of Altay State Pedagogical University (Academy of Education) (M= 18 years, SD=1.3).
Results. Perseverant students outperformed their less perseverant peers. Grit and perseverance scores were consistently associated with higher GPAs. The cluster analysis showed that most gritty students were from cluster with high learning motivation, intrinsic achievement motivation, identified and applied motivation. The main hypothesis and overall model of three types of persistence’s antecedents were confirmed. The most reliable SEM model predicting persistence was comprised by intrinsic achievement motivation, consistency of interests, and optimistic attributional style (RMSEA=.04).
However, the results show that high perseverance is not the only way to academic success. The second path to achieve academic success is through high and predominant intrinsic motivation accompanied by moderate level of perseverance. However this second pattern was twice more rare in our overall sample (19% compared to 40% to the first pattern). The theoretical advancements and implications for future research will be discussed.
This paper examines wage differentials between permanent/non-permanent and full-time/part-time employees. The analysis is based on the representative Household Survey of Welfare dataset, collected by Rosstat and the World Bank in 2003. The results show that non-permanent workers suffer a loss in wages while part-timers earn more per hour than full-timers, but the wage gap diminishes substantially when controlled for observed and non-observed characteristics. It seems that the theory of segmented labor markets is quite appropriate for explaining these differences in the Russian labor market.
Nowadays, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final years in Tatarstan higher education institutions. The author analyzes results of the first phase of ‘Monitoring educational and employment trajectories of school and higher education institution graduates’, the longitudinal studies initiated by NRU HSE in 2009. Two factors — employment schedule and the extent to which employment corresponds with what is studied — have helped single out five types of combining work and study. Different combinations reveal different levels of academic performance, different plans for the future, and somewhat different motivation to enter higher education institutions. A regression analysis has shown that only one type of combining work and studies, non-professional full-time employment, has a negative effect on academic performance. The rest of the student employment strategies haven’t shown any statistically important effect on performance. All other conditions being equal, professionally employed students perform better than non-professionally employed ones, and sometimes even better than those who don’t work at all. The perfect choice for students is professional part-time employment, when work becomes an additional source of knowledge and motivation to learn.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.