Предпринимательский потенциал российского общества: состояние, проблемы, возможности активизации. Промежуточный доклад по итогам реализации проекта Научного фонда ГУ ВШЭ «Предпринимательский потенциал общества: GEM Россия»
The article shows that the business world is Russia at the turn of XIX - XX centuries. had two centers of gravity: if cost (especially in heavy industry and in the banking sector) dominated the Petersburg, in the cultural and socio-political attitude of the province gravitated more to Moscow. While the leaders of big business in Moscow was made by the spokesmen of the interests of the majority of the Russian business of the Corporation.
The research is devoted to confessional-ethical factors of Old Believers entrepreneurship in Russia at the end of 17th 19th centuries. In the pioneer study are identified and analyzed confessional values, moral institutions and aims of Old Believers, which advanced their effective entrepreneurship (devotion to labor, notion of property, entrepreneurship and etc.) Is scrutinized the formed ethics of Old Believers economic activity. Conclusion is done about the transformation of Old Belief to a confessional-economical community, which development represented a non-etatist modernization alternative to the state one.
The participation of a Russian team in the GEM Consortium made it possible to collect data for Russia on the level of development and the structure of entrepreneurial potential that are comparable to analogous indicators in other countries participating in the GEM. (It should be noted that in 2006 and in 2007 the GEM was based on analysis of survey results from 42 countries, with a total sample of more than 170600 people.). Entrepreneurship is taken to mean any attempt to create a new enterprise or business, including self-employment, the creation of a new entrepreneurial structure or the expansion of a pre-existing business, undertaken by an individual, a group of individuals or an existing business structure.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.