Множественность институциональных миров: Нобелевская премия по экономике-2009 (в 2 ч.)
In sport tournaments, the rules are presumably structured in a way that any participant cannot benefit by losing instead of winning. We show that tournament systems, consisting of multiple round-robin and knockout tournaments with noncumulative prizes, which are ubiquitous around the world, are generically incentive incompatible. We use our model to discuss potential remedies and applications.
The theoretical contribution to the economics and statistics of these eminent scientists (academician Yu.V. Yaremenko, prof. B.S. Yastremsky, M.A. Bouniatian) and their intellectual biographies (with unknown features) are resurrected and described.
Relevance of this research is related to the fact that the first world war had major influence on the processes important for modern economic politics. The major one is governmental regulation. Newness of this monography is in consideration of unities and contradictions in theories, practices and politics during war and after it. Peculiarity of the work is that additionally to the researches of the modern authors it has works and researches of last century famous authors based on the unique historical archives.
This monoghraphy will fit both students, researchers and lecturers of the economic science as well as broader audience.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.