The effect of internationalization on innovation in the manufacturing sector
In 1937, the Japanese economist Kaname Akamatsu discovered specific links between the rise and decline of the global peripheries. Akamatsu’s theory of development describes certain mechanisms whose working results in the narrowing of the gap between the level of development of the economy of developing and developed countries, and, thus, in the re-structuring of the relationships between the global core and the global periphery. Akamatsu developed his model on the basis of his analysis of the economic development of Japan before World War II, with a special emphasis on the development of the Japanese textile industry. Akamatsu’s catch-up development includes three phases: import of goods, organization of the production of previously imported products, and export of those goods. This model proved to be productive for analyzing the development of many other developing countries, especially in East Asia, making the theory of flying geese popular among the economists of these countries, as well as the whole world. The “flying geese” model produces certain swings that may be denoted as Akamatsu waves. Akamatsu waves may be defined as cycles (with a period ranging from 20 to 60 years) that are connected with convergence and divergence of core and periphery of the World System in a way that explains cyclical upward and downward swings (at global and national levels) in the movements of the periphery countries as they catch up with the richer ones.
The article derives from the results of ethnographic research conducted by the author in 2003- 2010 and draws on fi eldwork data and focused biographical interviews (2007-2010) with technical specialists working in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Minsk, and Rostov-on-Don. The goal of the article is to take the area known as data recovery for a case study and illustrate the active part that user communities play in maintaining computerized technologies, developing innovations, and shaping technological service markets.
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
This article studies the relationship between exporting and past productivity at the firm level. Panel data from two surveys of Russian manufacturing firms conducted in 2005 and 2009 are used. We analyse the difference between continuing and new exporters, and study how drivers to exporting differ if firms export to CIS or high-wage advanced countries. We find empirical evidence for the self-selection hypothesis: both continuing and new exporters are more productive and larger than non-exporters and export quitters. Path dependence in the nature of foreign trade ceased to exist: serving the markets of the former Soviet Union requires the same productivity advantage as exporting to the developed countries.
The analysis of long economic cycles allows us to understand long-term world-system dynamics, to develop forecasts, to explain crises of the past, as well as the current global economic crisis. The article offers a historical sketch of research on K-waves; it analyzes the nature of Kondratieff waves that are considered as a special form of cyclical dynamics that emerged in the industrial period of the World System history. It offers a historical and theoretical analysis of K-wave dynamics in the World System framework; in particular, it studies the influence of the long wave dynamics on the changes of the world GDP growth rates during the last two centuries. Special attention is paid to the interaction between Kondratieff waves and Juglar cycles. The article is based on substantial statistical data, it extensively employs quantitative analysis, contains numerous tables and diagrams. On the basis of the proposed analysis it offers some forecasts of the world economic development in the next two decades.
The article concludes with a section that presents a hypothesis that the change of K-wave upswing and downswing phases correlates significantly with the phases of fluctuations in the relationships between the World-System Core and Periphery, as well as with the World System Core changes.
Proceedings of TISLID'10
This book addresses the issue of modern medical innovations management through an inductive approach by looking into cases before putting forward solutions in terms of strategies and tools. It provides a model for the designing and implementation of effective healthcare technology management (HTM) systems in hospitals and healthcare provider settings, as well as promotes a new method of analysis of hospital organization for decision-making regarding technology to show how systematic management using a strategy that balances bottom-up and top-down driven innovations, can deliver better medical technological advances.
Managing Medical Technological Innovations is organized in three parts. Part 1 covers innovation strategies, laying the groundwork and concepts in design thinking. Part 2 follows by presenting the tools available for implementation. And finally, Part 3 uses the case studies of pharmaceutical firms in China and hospital medical record management in Holland to illustrate how these ideas and methodologies have been applied.
Ancient Rome and Athens were once considered by every indication, great cities! European cities have endured a number of long wars that nearly destroyed them permanently. In the U.S., the City of San Francisco was nearly wiped out by the earthquake of 1906 and in 1871 the City of Chicago was nearly destroyed by fire. In nearly every case, these major cities were able to recover, rebuild, transform, making them stronger and more resilient. Today the so-called “smart cities” movement is based in part on the confluence of new technologies, economic growth, a re-evaluation of quality of life factors, as well as the resurgence of interest in cities across the globe. For example, only recently have we witnessed the trend towards urban growth in American cities. Today the outward migration has reversed itself after decades of residents moving to the suburbs or further out to rural parts of the country. Now, people are returning to our cities, or have decided not to leave as their forefathers had before them. This reinforces the need to re-think and to act differently when it comes to urban planning and maintaining sustainable cities. Even the smartest of cities can not rest on their past success. Smart cities require a constant process of vision, execution, and renewal, which makes it more a journey than a destination. There are many elements that comprise a smart or intelligent city. This book was created to further explore those elements and the pathways towards becoming and maintaining a smart city. This book is a collection of works from thought-leaders across the globe, with authors currently residing in no less than 10 countries including France, Spain, Italy, Belgium, South Africa, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Russia, in addition to the United States. The twenty-seven chapters reveal that there is far more in common than not, as each author shares their research and insights, all aimed at helping the reader better understand and appreciate the contemporary smart city movement. As the smart cities movement gains attention, some have been critical - going as far to say that this is only a passing fad or a relabeling of current events. Whether this is a fad or not, one thing is crystal clear, cities are growing and are here to stay. It is an undeniable fact that growing populations place an enormous strain on our cities in terms of transportation, infrastructure, public safety, health, education, and the quality of natural resources such as water and air. Finally there is the issue of energy and sustainability from an environmental perspective. The fall of ancient Rome may not have happened in a day, but its decline and those of other, once great, cities provide both lessons and warnings that are instructive. These lessons remind us that in the end cities are a profound collection of citizens, and without their meaningful engagement we may be left with cities that are no longer smart.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.