Распределение влияния в рейхстаге Веймарской республики в 1919–1933 гг.
We present an analysis of the distribution of voting power in the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic based on the outcomes of the nine general elections in the period 1919-1933. The paper contains a brief description of the political and electoral system of the Weimar Republic and a characterization of the main political actors and their political views. The power distributions are evaluated by means of the Banzhaf index and two new indices which take into account the parties' preferences to coalesce. A model is constructed to evaluate the parties' preferences with reference to the closeness of the ideological positions in a one-dimensional political space.
Theoretical and experimental results of curing of polymer composite pipes with the use of microwave radiation energy are presented. The results of studies on the accelerated curing of polymer composite pipes with diameter of 2000 mm, thickness of 36 mm at a temperature of +200°C and at anelectromagnetic field frequency oscillation of 2450 MHz and the output microwave power of 115 kW in a beam-type microwave device are given. The temperature deviation from the nominal value on the outer surface of the pipe is absent, and in the thickness of pipe does not exceed 5°C. A method of composite pipes curing can reduce energy costs, increase productivity and improve working conditions of staff.
The results of calculation and measurement of temperature distribution in the leasing out of dielectric materials which are heated up in the microwave devices wave-water type. The calculation method of microwave devices of a waveguide type of heat treatment of sheet dielectric materials. Considered microwave devices, Otley-exclusive feature of which is the change of the geometrical sizes of a narrow wall of a rectangular waveguide, working mainly on the type of waves to ensure a uniform temperature in the processed sheet the dielectric-dielectric material.
The method of calculation of the temperature distribution in the dielectric material for the traveling wave microwave devices is presented. The basic equations for the temperature distribution in the direction of the electromagnetic field energy propagation with considering the dependence of the dielectric parameters of a material on the temperature changes and taking into account the heat transfer to the environment for the arbitrary design of the electrodynamic system are obtained. The results of calculation and measurements of the temperature distribution of the material in the direction of the traveling wave propagationat the electromagnetic field frequency oscillations of 2450 MHz are given. The discrepancy of calculated and measured characteristics of the temperature distribution in the material does not exceed 10%.
An analysis of power distribution is studied among factions and groups in Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (1990–2012). Banzhaf power index is used to evaluate the power of factions and groups for two different decision-making rules, the simple majority and the constitutional majority. Ordinal α-index – a generalization of Banzhaf power index which takes into account factions’ and groups’ preferences forcoalition formation –- is evaluated as well. It is shown that the power of a faction evaluated using Banzhaf index might significantly differ from its share of seats. It is shown as well that if α-index is used centrist factions increase their power while factions with radical positions decrease their power. A brief information is provided about the modern history of Ukrainian parliament, electoral system, structure of Verkvona Rada of Ukraine and the main political events in Ukraine in the period 1990– 2012.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.