Образовательные кредиты и высшее образование в России
At the institutional determinants of inequality of opportunity in quality higher education. The author of the main directions of the necessary institutional reforms to improve the accessibility of higher education in Russia.
The paper “Higher Education System in Russia: reform process and dynamics of internationalization” was prepared by the team of experts from the National Training Foundation (Moscow, Russia) as part of a larger research project “A comparative analysis: Challenges and opportunities for large higher education systems”.
The implementation of this large-scale project has allowed us to evaluate the dynamics of the national higher education system within a broader international context, as well as to compare its recent trends with other countries’ experience. The cross-cultural format of the comparative study, as well as the pressing character of the issues dealt with, have brought the topic of internationalization to the subject of a special debate and turned it into a possible direction for future joint work.
As the history of the Russian education system evolves, increasingly complex public systems and organizational structures lead to significant levels of systemic diversification. It is characterized by the presence of both strong, internationally recognized universities, and a large number of institutions that focus only on the national and even regional levels. Thus, it is logical that the approaches to the development and evaluation of the internationalization process should be differentiated as well.
The Ministry of Education and Science of Russia adopted such an approach, initiating a number of comprehensive strategic projects to form and support different elements of the higher education structure. In 2013, the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia initiated the “5-100” project in order to develop world-class universities. The goal of this strategic project is to increase the international competitiveness of leading Russian universities and have five of them included in the Top 100 of international ratings by 2020.
Thus, the leading role of the state strategic actions – such as the creation of the “5-100” project – remains persistent in the internationalization process. However, despite the fact that the development of the higher education system in Russia was historically dominated by the state, current institutional trends prove an emerging balance between state-private actors. The country’s state education policy is focused on enhancing the autonomy of state universities and on reducing the normative barriers that prevent universities from flexibly responding to the changes in the educational service market.
More autonomous higher education institutions are able to form their own ways in achieving the goal of internationalization within a given structure of incentives. This dual institutional development will continue to influence the future of the internationalization process in the higher education system of Russia.
This article presents the results of analysis of representations of young people constructed in newspapers and academic journals concerned Russian higher education. The main focus is the specificity of representation of young people in central Russian newspapers
Western university model was transferred to Russia in the 18th century. The development of HEIs took its own unique direction serving the needs of the country, while the state has been dominating the HE sector. The chapter analyzes the interplay of market, state and informal mechanisms in the process of implementation of rankings. The institutional legacy underpinned the locally defined hierarchies of HEIs and disciplines, both explicit and implicit. The challenges that Russia meets on its way toward world university ranking are on the level of institutions and faculty, students and parents, and employers. As a conclusion, global rankings and local hierarchies have to be balanced in the HEIs structures to allow for a compromise between the demands of the global competition and the needs of the local communities.
The article presents the current practices of system of remuneration for university teaching staff in higher educational institutions in Russia. The research was based on 51 in-depth interviews in the 6 universities and included the analysis of 100 universities’ local acts of the wage system. The main question of the article is: what are the differences in the remuneration systems in the 6 higher education institutions and why these differences occur. We claim that the universities’ remuneration systems are formed under the impact of 4 factors: 1) external formal accountability to the federal and regional governments; 2) strategic goals of the university (which are often formed as a university response to external accountability); 3) the financial resources of the university; 4) its internal features: the number of university teaching staff, centralized or decentralized management, the number of departments of the university and its’ profiles.
Student loans represent a conventional form for increasing access to higher education. However, students usually take all risks from these loans, and companies obtain most of benefits. In this paper, a model for sponsoring student loans by companies is discussed. Basically, companies and governments provide financial assistance for students. However, companies can provide guarantees for students based on their academic results, i.e. the better academic results are, the more benefits a student obtains, including guaranteed employment after graduation in case of high academic performance. Application of such a model can motivate students to show better performance, and bridge the gap between university education and further employment. Student loans are supposed to become less risky and more motivational that can result in greater competition among applicants in universities that leads to a greater talent level of admitted students. As a result, job positions can be filled with more talented people to produce greater outcomes and higher tax payments in the long run. Moreover, options for companies to save money on salaries and tax payments are discussed.
The book of abstrats of 27th conference "Mathematics. Computer. Education" that was held in Dubna, Russia in January 27 - February 1, 2020. MCE conferences have a wide range of topics and goal at the consolidation of the work of scientists and education workers, saving russian scientific and educational traditions, qualifying of scientific and educational personnel in the field of mathematical modeling and information technologies, and attracting young people into science and education.
The article describes transformations of the Russian education system during the past decades and discusses the role of the Bologna process, and particularly the introduction of a new degree system, in the course of the higher education reforms. Two new types of the Russian universities introduced – federal universities and national research universities – should become engines in the realization of the tasks under reform. The role of universities and their development programmes increases, a new funding model should give more autonomy to the HEIs and secure sustainability in the implementation of their development strategies. The Bologna process has definitely served as a catalyst in the course of the modernization of the Russian education sector and everybody would benefit if it were more coordinated with general reforms.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.