Educational pathways and trajectories of rural students. I. Local educational systems
In this paper, we study the relationship between family characteristics and the choice of an educational trajectory in high school. We explore three situations of educational choice: the choice between academic and vocational education after grades 9th (middle to high school transition) and 11th (postsecondary) as well as the choice between selective and non-selective university at the postsecondary educational choice. In accordance with R.Budon’s theory we explore primary and secondary effects of family’s socioeconomic status (SES). Primary effects are expressed via association between family’s SES and educational achievements. Secondary effects are expressed via association between students SES and their educational choices directly. The work is based on the data of the longitudinal project "Trajectories in Education and Careers". It was launched in 2011, when respondents studied in the 8th grade, and continues to these days. The dataset provide variables on the wide range of achievement, family’s SES and other important information proxies. For achievement TIMSS mathematics and USE in Russian language were used. The results showed that the primary effects reduce from the 9th to the 11th grades education choice, while the role of secondary effects increase. Even high achieving students from families with a low level of cultural, educational, and social capital chose less selective institutions. Conversely, students from families with high SES, but low academic achievements, will make a choice in favor of higher education. Conclusions are made about the degree of accessibility during transition into the high school and higher education, as well as the probable causes of the manifestation of inequality.
The article deals with the educational expectations of parents, as well as parent' s subjective perception of educational opportunities for their children. The paper reconstructs the meanings that the parents of St. Petersburg ascribe to the education and development of their children of preschool and primary school age. Parent's educational expectations are understood as parent's concepts of the desired level and quality of education for their children, the future social and professional status of children. The article is based on the materials of empirical research and represents the results of the analysis of educational expectations at the micro level. The author uses the methodological orientations of the two approaches of sociology of education in explaining the logic of action of parents 'economic' and 'cultural'. The article presents the strategies of parents in the organization of care and education of their children at the stages of pre-school and primary school, reconstructed the logic of educational choice of representatives of middle and working classes.
Major changes have happened in the Russian educational system in recent decades. The number of people who continue studying after finishing secondary school has increased significantly, as well as the number of universities and students. The key predictor of educational trajectory is the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students’ families. A lot of research has been devoted to studying family influence on educational trajectory choice. This article considers the main theoretical approaches to studying the relationship between trajectory choice and student SES in the context of higher education expansion. In addition, empirical studies are analyzed, to test the implementation of the described theories in various education systems.
Macro- and micro-theories are identified to explain the reasons for the reproduction of inequality at state and individual levels respectively. Macro-theories describe conditions when inequality persists despite increasing access to education and tell us how to overcome inequalities. These theories are used for comparing students’ cohorts and identifying changes in accessibility to a certain level of education over time. Micro-theories study educational transitions at the individual level and consider the reasons for choosing a trajectory in terms of students’ opportunities, preferences, and limitations. The current review of both empirical and theoretical studies will be useful for future research in this area to make predictions and determine a valid model of the relationship between SES and the choice of educational trajectory in Russia.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.