Developing a statistical framework for the measurement of enabling technologies and their applications: draft guidelines for collecting and interpreting technology data
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.
The pocket data book contains main indicators characterizing S&T and innovation potential of the Russian Federation, R&D output, main Information Society indices. The data book includes information of the Federal Service for State Statistics, Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Euro¬stat, UNESCO, World Intellectual Property Organisation, national statistical services of foreign countries, and results of own methodological and analytical studies of the HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge. In some cases, the presented data specify those published earlier.
On the Russian population opinion one of the most urgent ecology problems is the water pollution. By the data of Russian Federal Consumer Rights Protection and Human Health Control Service about 37% of the surface sources of centralized drinking water supply don`t meet sanitary norms and rules and 22% of Russian citizens do not have access to centralized water supply .
The study outlined three possible ways of overcoming above marked problems. The first method is based on the modern industrial-management scheme which is traditional for water provision in Russia. The second option suggests cleaning up sources of water intakes. The third way shows an option of varying treatment methods and technologies, depending on customer needs.
The Roadmap developed by Higher School of Economics and Rusnano indentified that nanotechnologies increase the efficiency and decrease energy consumption of traditional as well as innovation processes of water purification. In particular the perspective area of nanotechnology application is lies in the sphere of innovation sorbents and coagulants. Moreover nanotechnologies can also be used in baromembrane processes and membrane bioreactors.
Innovation technologies, processes and products implementation should be specific to individual regions and municipalities. This approach is based on the compliance of centralized and decentralized water supply, inlet and outlet water quality.
The Roadmap results are designed for the formation of government and regional policy on the pure water provision for population and industrial water treatment. Furthermore it indicates the most relevant business ideas and evaluates projects for nanotechnology and nanoproducts used in this field.
For the development of technological innovations it is essential to ensure competent and modern commercialization within the framework of balanced business models. Multifactor cluster analysis of business models of contemporary high-technology companies and industries shows that the most effective commercialization emanate in the framework of four basic models. Company's profitability does not depend directly on the level of its technologies, but is determined by the quality of these business models. Besides trends in high-technology industries demonstrate raising segmentation and differentiation of markets and more frequent utilization of value network models.
The paper presents the selected parts of the translation of the Chapter 10 Scenarios for Financial Stability of Tertiary Education of the publication Higher Education to 2030. Volume 2: Globalization published by OECD in 2009. It explores how tertiary education worldwide could develop in financial sustainable manner, providing an overview of the main alternatives for higher education financing today with an emphasis on different allocation models and suggestions on possible future scenarios for higher education financing.