An Excel spreadsheet for the decomposition of a difference between two values of an aggregate demographic measure by stepwise replacement running from young to old ages
A general algorithm for the decomposition of differences between two values of an aggregate demographic measure of age and other dimensions is realized as Excel/VBA. It assumes that the aggregate measure is computed from similar matrices of discrete demographic data for two populations under comparison. The algorithm estimates the effects of replacement for each elementary cell of one matrix by the respective cell of another matrix. The replacement runs from young to old ages.
This chapter deals with age and educational dimensions of the labour supply in Russia, and looks into two time periods covering 15 years in retrospect and the next 15 years in prospect. For our analysis we exploit the micro-census (2015) data and all labour force surveys (LFS) waves covering the retrospect. Using demographic projections we can forecast employment structure up to 2030. These two dimensions are directly associated with such challenges as aging and over-education of the labour force. If in the recent past age and education contributed to the economic growth, in the next 15 years their effect is likely to be less beneficial if not negative. This will pose a challenge to the prospective economic development through a number of channels. Russia is not unique here but seems to be more exposed than many others to both due to its demographic and educational developments.
Let G = (V,E) be a digraph with disjoint sets of sources S ⊂ V and sinks T ⊂ V endowed with an S–T flow f : E → Z+. It is a well-known fact that f decomposes into a sum_st(fst) of s–t flows fst between all pairs of sources s ∈ S and sinks t ∈ T . In the usual RAM model, such a decomposition can be found in O(E log V 2 E ) time. The present paper concerns the complexity of this problem in the external memory model (introduced by Aggarwal and Vitter). The internal memory algorithm involves random memory access and thus becomes inefficient. We propose two novel methods. The first one requires O(Sort(E) log V 2 E ) I/Os and the second one takes O(Sort(E) log U) expected I/Os (where U denotes the maximum value of f).
Migration is an age-specific process. Various types of migration in Russia including long-term, temporary and commuter migration, each have specific age structure. This paper analyses age composition of mobile and non-mobile population of Russia using administrative data on migration, 2010 Census data and Sample Survey on Employment data for 2012-2014. The author investigates relationship between age composition of labour migration and migration destinations. The results of the analysis of the interregional migration in Russia indicate that labour migrants of older ages tend to choose destinations in the North and East of Russia, while migration to Moscow and Saint Petersburg has younger age composition. These differences can be explained by specific economic structure and labour market structure of the destination regions, as well as with existing demand for workers with specific qualifications in some regions.
The paper analyses the age structure of internal migration across Russian regions. We use data on the age of interregional migrants in the regions of Russia in 2011-2015 given for one-year age groups and data on the population size of the Russian regions by one-year age groups. The regions were grouped into clusters (by the ratio of arrivals/departures per age group to the total number of migrants) using the method of k-means clustering with SPSS. The results of the analysis indicate that, as in other countries, the peak of migration is observed at young ages, which is explained by mass enrollment of school graduates in institutions of higher education. As people become older, their migration activity declines. In some cases, regions experience another migration peak in young old age groups: after retirement, people may move to a place more appropriate for 50-60-year-olds or return to their previous place of residence. The analysis also revealed significant variations in age patterns of interregional migration, both for inflows (arrivals) and outflows (departures). These differences mainly concern the level of the migration peak at young ages and the presence of additional migration peaks at other ages.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.