An Excel spreadsheet for the decomposition of a difference between two values of an aggregate demographic measure by stepwise replacement running from young to old ages
A general algorithm for the decomposition of differences between two values of an aggregate demographic measure of age and other dimensions is realized as Excel/VBA. It assumes that the aggregate measure is computed from similar matrices of discrete demographic data for two populations under comparison. The algorithm estimates the effects of replacement for each elementary cell of one matrix by the respective cell of another matrix. The replacement runs from young to old ages.
This chapter deals with age and educational dimensions of the labour supply in Russia, and looks into two time periods covering 15 years in retrospect and the next 15 years in prospect. For our analysis we exploit the micro-census (2015) data and all labour force surveys (LFS) waves covering the retrospect. Using demographic projections we can forecast employment structure up to 2030. These two dimensions are directly associated with such challenges as aging and over-education of the labour force. If in the recent past age and education contributed to the economic growth, in the next 15 years their effect is likely to be less beneficial if not negative. This will pose a challenge to the prospective economic development through a number of channels. Russia is not unique here but seems to be more exposed than many others to both due to its demographic and educational developments.
One of the possible reasons of a shortage of data in literature on age change of neurodynamic parameters of women within reproductive stage ontogenesis is, against the background research of a leading age factor, ignoring influence of the OMC factor stage.
Paralinguistic phenomena are non-verbal elements in conversation. Paralinguistic studies are usually based on audio or video recordings of spoken communication. In this article, we will show what kind of audible paralinguistic information may be obtained from the ORD speech corpus of everyday Russian discourse containing long-term audio recordings of conversations made in natural circumstances. This linguistic resource provides rich authentic data for studying the diversity of audible paralinguistic phenomena. The frequency of paralinguistic phenomena in everyday conversations has been calculated on the base of the annotated subcorpus of 187,600 tokens. The most frequent paralinguistic phenomena turned out to be: laughter, inhalation noise, cough, e-like and m-like vocalizations, tongue clicking, and the variety of unclassified nonverbal sounds (calls, exclamations, imitations by voice, etc.). The paper reports on distribution of paralinguistic elements, non-verbal interjections and hesitations in speech of different gender and age groups.
Let G = (V,E) be a digraph with disjoint sets of sources S ⊂ V and sinks T ⊂ V endowed with an S–T flow f : E → Z+. It is a well-known fact that f decomposes into a sum_st(fst) of s–t flows fst between all pairs of sources s ∈ S and sinks t ∈ T . In the usual RAM model, such a decomposition can be found in O(E log V 2 E ) time. The present paper concerns the complexity of this problem in the external memory model (introduced by Aggarwal and Vitter). The internal memory algorithm involves random memory access and thus becomes inefficient. We propose two novel methods. The first one requires O(Sort(E) log V 2 E ) I/Os and the second one takes O(Sort(E) log U) expected I/Os (where U denotes the maximum value of f).
The article traces the evolution of age criteria applied by the Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Moscow State University in their personnel policy during the post-war decades. Drawing on documents deposited in the Archives of the Academy of Sciences and in the Central State-own Archives of the City of Moscow, the study shows that these criteria changed significantly over time. In the late 1940s and throughout the 1950s, there appears to have been no articulated preference in terms of age, but high importance was attached to scholars’ ‘experience’ which was associated with ‘old generation.’ Those belonging to the younger generation were mostly treated as minors of sorts who had to be ‘brought up’ even if they were post-graduate students in their twenties or even thirties. Gradually, from the early 1960s on, organizational forms were introduced that made it possible to more fully use the intellectual potential of ‘young scholars’ without changing their place in the personnel hierarchy: the so-called “young scholars’ councils”, “young scholars’ competitions”, and “creative youth groups”. In the second half of the 1980s, after ‘rejuvenation’ in the party and state apparatus was proclaimed, the personnel policy of the Academy of Sciences changed, adopting the notions of "aging" (as a synonym for "obsolescence") and "rejuvenation". As part of the reform of the Academy of Sciences, it was prescribed annually to recruit a certain percentage of "young specialists" in order to "address new and topical issues", whereas scholars who had passed a certain age line were to be fired. From now on, it was no longer ‘experience’ but ‘youth’ that was expected to provide for better performance of Soviet academia.
Migration is an age-specific process. Various types of migration in Russia including long-term, temporary and commuter migration, each have specific age structure. This paper analyses age composition of mobile and non-mobile population of Russia using administrative data on migration, 2010 Census data and Sample Survey on Employment data for 2012-2014. The author investigates relationship between age composition of labour migration and migration destinations. The results of the analysis of the interregional migration in Russia indicate that labour migrants of older ages tend to choose destinations in the North and East of Russia, while migration to Moscow and Saint Petersburg has younger age composition. These differences can be explained by specific economic structure and labour market structure of the destination regions, as well as with existing demand for workers with specific qualifications in some regions.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.