The presence of images does not moderate the disfluency effect
Psychology. PSY. Высшая школа экономики , 2021. No. 127.
The disfluency effect is an improvement in the retention of information if its processing is difficult. Disfluency is usually attained by changing perceptual characteristics, and in the case of texts, fonts are made less legible. The disfluency effect has been demonstrated in several studies, but the number of unsuccessful replications is significantly higher. Among the possible reasons why the disfluency effect often cannot be detected, we consider the influence of other factors acting as moderators. This study examines the presence of images accompanying text information as a moderator. Based on dual-coding theory, we assume that the disfluency effect will manifest itself only when there are no images, since their presence contributes to better memorization. Two experiments were conducted in which information written either in Arial (fluent condition) or Comic Sans (disfluent condition) was presented to participants. The information was also accompanied by images or not. In the first experiment, the participants were asked to memorize 40 short words, in the second 7 fictional facts about the Earth. In both cases, the hypotheses were not confirmed—the disfluency effect did not manifest under any conditions.
, , Психологические исследования: электронный научный журнал 2021 Т. 14 № 78
Recently, the idea of beneficial effect of perceptually disfluent, poorly legible fonts on memory has been actively discussed. Among the explanations for the positive effect is the "desirable difficulties" approach, according to which the disfluent fonts affect metacognitive processes while reading. Such interruption is thought to promote better information processing compared to ordinary, fluent fonts. ...
Added: August 29, 2021
, В кн.: Когнитивная наука в Москве: новые исследования. Материалы конференции 23 – 24 июня 2021. .: М.: Институт практической психологии и психоанализа, 2021.. С. 75-79.
The disfluency effect was recently discovered, according to which it is possible to improve memorization by making fonts less legible. In a number of studies, the existence of this effect has been discussed, and the question about the possible existence of moderators for this effect has also been raised. In this paper, the presence of ...
Added: July 14, 2021
, , В кн.: Психология XXI века. Психологические исследования: от теории к практике. Сборник тезисов участников международной научной конференции молодых ученых 21–23 апреля 2021 г.. .: СПб.: Скифия-принт, 2021.. С. 63-64.
В статье представлен план исследования эффекта не-беглости. ...
Added: July 15, 2021
Алкоголизация как условие регрессии при научении и при просоциальном поведении // Вопросы психологии. 2017. №3. С. 80-91.
, , et al., Вопросы психологии 2017 № 3 С. 80-91
Alcoholism as a cause of regression in learning and in pro-social behavior Alexandrov Yu.I., Svarnik O.Ye., Znamenskaya I.I., Arutiunova K.R., Kolbeneva M.G., Krylov A.K., Bulava A.N. Despite a long history of the notion of regression, its manifestations and mechanisms are still poorly researched, specific experimental studies are rare, points of view conflict. A study was conducted to discover dynamics of subjective experience and brain activity lying ...
Added: January 30, 2018
Are People Able to Disentangle Perceptual and Conceptual Fluency? Evidence from Artificial Grammar Learning Experiment
, , Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics 2022 Vol. 19 No. 1 P. 150-168
The heuristic of information processing fluency plays an important role in making judgments. Some sources of processing fluency can be relevant or irrelevant to the content of a judgment. In this study, we aim to check whether individuals can distinguish different sources of fluency or fluency has a general effect on judgments. We used an ...
Added: November 19, 2021
, Петербургский театральный журнал 2021 № 3 С. 14-19
В статье представлен краткий обзор современных исследований так называемого "когнитивного старения": возрастных изменений рабочей памяти, внимания, ментального лексикона, автобиографической памяти личности, а также возможностей компенсации возрастного снижения когнитивных функций. ...
Added: November 4, 2021
, , , Studies in Computational Intelligence 2020 Vol. 856 P. 159-164
This paper presents a novel rodent avoidance test. We have developed a specialized device and procedures that expand the possibilities for exploration of the processes of learning and memory in a psychophysiological experiment. The device consists of a current stimulating electrode-platform and custom software that allows to control and record real-time experimental protocols as well as reconstructs animal movement paths. ...
Added: December 28, 2020
The acquisition of new word meaning by auditory-motor associations in a trial-and-error learning paradigm
, , et al., Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics 2018 Vol. 15 No. 2 P. 257-267
According to embodied cognition theory, speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question that is crucial for our understanding of the origin of language is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience into word meaning. We have developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition ...
Added: September 12, 2018
, , et al., The role of labels in learning statistically dense and statistically sparse categories / Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ. Series WP BRP "PSYCHOLOGY". 2015. No. 35.
Subjects were given classic category formation tasks with a feedback. We used two types of categories - so called statistically dense and statistically sparse categories. We conducted two experiments to assess the influence of sign's type (experiment 1) and the interference of the redundant actions performed with the sign (experiment 2) on the performance of ...
Added: April 6, 2015
, , et al., Вопросы психолингвистики 2012 Т. 2 № 16 С. 136-144
В эксперименте испытуемые запоминали объекты в условиях, когда они были ранее названы или одним словом, или двумя. Как оказалось, наличие двух слов привело к ухудшению запоминания индивидуальных свойств предметов, в отличие от условия с одним словом. Такой эффект интенции значения - спонтанной активацией категоризации в присутствии слова – впервые обнаружен на искусственном материале. ...
Added: January 2, 2013
This open access book brings together discourse on children and peace from the 15th International Symposium on the Contributions of Psychology to Peace, covering issues pertinent to children and peace and approaches to making their world safer, fairer and more sustainable. The book is divided into nine sections that examine traditional themes (social construction and deconstruction ...
Added: November 24, 2020
, Социосфера 2013 № 2 С. 74-76
The aim of the following article is to examine the reasons why negative experience tends to be more deeply ingrained in human memory than positive one. The article, written in the form of a cross-disciplinary study incorporating elements of psychology and social science, is the author‘s attempt to arrive at a convincing conclusion relying on ...
Added: November 5, 2013
, , , Soviet education 1986 Vol. 28 No. 7 P. 8-12
This work will familiarize the teacher with contemporary Soviet psychology's progress to date in the study and shaping of the motivation to learn. ...
Added: November 21, 2013
, Мир психологии. Научно-методический журнал 2015 Т. 82 № 2 С. 130-145
The paper introduces author’s perspective on the integration of psychological ideas regarding memory into the context of personality psychology and into the psychological theory of life. To conduct this integration the theoretical active memory model has been elaborated. The results of the modeling, which emphasize the importance and the role of memory in the context ...
Added: September 28, 2015
, , , Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences 2017 Vol. 21 No. 4 P. 391-406
Walter Freeman's work emphasises the role of individual activity and intentionality as opposed to the traditional stimulus-reaction view and the machine metaphor. The results of our computer modeling studies suggest the nonlinear dynamics of experience emerging from perception-action cycles. We consider the perception-action cycle as a behavioral continuum of anticipated outcomes of actions. Neuroscientific research ...
Added: October 23, 2017
, , Perception 2021 Vol. 50 No. 1S P. 157-157
Added: February 21, 2022
, , Психология. Журнал Высшей школы экономики 2013 Т. 10 № 3 С. 75-86
Subjects in an experimental study were asked to remember objects associated with artificial names. The pronunciation of object names led to decrease in the memory performance concerning specific qualities of objects; the same effect was not found for pronunciation of cues concerning object location. The authors discuss the role of words in perceptual categorization. ...
Added: September 30, 2013
, , et al., Cortex 2016 Vol. 83 No. October P. 1-16
Research into neurobiological mechanisms of morphosyntactic processing of language has suggested specialised systems for decomposition and storage, which are used flexibly during the processing of complex polymorphemic words (such as those formed through affixation, e.g., boy + s = noun + plural marker or boy + ish = noun plus attenuator). However, neural underpinnings of acquisition of novel morphology are still unknown. We implicitly trained our participants ...
Added: September 9, 2016
University Students’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Russia: A Focus on Learning and Everyday Life
, , Seminar.net 2012 Vol. 8 No. 1 P. 27-53
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on ...
Added: May 16, 2012
Processing of negative stimuli facilitates event-based prospective memory only under low memory load.
, , , Journal of Cognitive Psychology 2017 P. 1-9
Event-based prospective memory (PM) is related to the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate situation. Previous literature showed enhanced performance when emotional stimuli are used as PM targets. However, it was entirely unexplored whether this effect is susceptible to prospective memory load (PML), related to the number of target events that ...
Added: October 19, 2017
Effects of item distinctiveness on the retrieval of objects and object-location bindings from visual working memory
, , Attention, Perception and Psychophysics 2022
Visual working memory (VWM) is prone to interference from stored items competing for its limited capacity. Distinctiveness or similarity of the items is acknowledged to affect this competition, such that poor item distinctiveness causes a failure to discriminate between items sharing common features. In three experiments, we studied how the distinctiveness of studied real-world objects ...
Added: May 27, 2022
Когнитивные и образовательные эффекты системы развивающего обучения Д.Б. Эльконина-В.В. Давыдова: возможности и ограничения
, Культурно-историческая психология 2020 Т. 16 № 4 С. 14-25
Система развивающего обучения Д.Б. Эльконина - В.В. Давыдова прошла большой путь, от экспериментальной программы до широкого признания в начальных школах России. В статье анализируются исследование, посвященные доказательствам эффективности системы развивающего обучения по показателям когнитивного развития и сформированности учебной деятельности. Выделены четыре основных категории результатов, по которым были обнаружены публикации отечественных исследователей - различия детей из ...
Added: September 6, 2020
, , et al., Neuroimage 2021 Vol. 224 Article 117445
Using movies and narratives as naturalistic stimuli in human neuroimaging studies has yielded significant ad- vances in understanding of cognitive and emotional functions. The relevant literature was reviewed, with em- phasis on how the use of naturalistic stimuli has helped advance scientific understanding of human memory, attention, language, emotions, and social cognition in ways that ...
Added: March 10, 2021
, , et al., Journal of Analytical Psychology 2020 Vol. 65 No. 3 P. 476-496
As shown in our previous paper (‘Regression I. Experimental approaches to regression’, JAP, 65, 2, 345-65), the common mechanism of regression can be described as reversible dedifferentiation, which is understood as a relative increase of the proportion of low-differentiated (older) systems in actualized experience. Experimental data show that regression following disease (chronic tension headache) is followed by adaptation and an ...
Added: December 28, 2020