Chapter IV Do Commuting Women Have Fewer Children?
The study contributes in analytical description of spatial diffusion of fertility, in particular, influenced by labour movements of people between places of residence and work. It is assumed that the labour market has externality on the marriage market due to commuting, which, in turn, affects fertility. A model of spatial diffusion of fertility is based on assumption of global and local spillover effects. The global spillover effect, as shifts in fertility norms, is motivated by increasing variance of social interactions of an individual, when places of work and residence are different. One local spillover effect is in response to flows of earnings across space. Another mechanism is related to expected changes in probabilities to find a partner affected by differences in day and night population. The analytical model, in which the effects on fertility of the cited spillovers are decomposed, is constructed in the paper on the base of a model of the demand for children, spatial stock-flow model of a market, and a matching model with a sex imbalance or spatial mismatch as the probability of matching. Three sex imbalances, namely of night-, day-time population and an adjusted to sex imbalance of commuters to residents are empirically tested. Empirical evidence on municipal Swedish data for the period 1994–2008 does not provide any strong evidence of spatial diffusion of fertility. However, there are externalities of labour mobility on fertility due to changes of gender structure of population.
This paper analyses the problem of road and transport infrastructure of Moscow. At first, several analytical models of large cities are presented and thus, problems of Moscow are described. Next, a model, describing causal relationships between various problems of the road and transport infrastructure of the city is formulated. Finally, priorities of development are identified, as well as short term and long term actions, aimed at improving the situation in the city.
This study validates the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) on the Russian youth sample. A total of 689 respondents participated (Mage = 20.22, SDage = 2.08; 526 females). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, the Positive and Negative Affects Schedule, the Centre of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Authenticity Scale were used to examine the content validity of CD-RISC-10. Two hypotheses were examined: that the Russian version of the CD-RISC-10 1) has structural validity (is unifactorial, as the original version) and 2) has convergent validity (which is proven by positive connections with psychological wellbeing and negative connections with ill-being). According to CFA, it was shown that the scale really had a unifactorial structure; its reliability was satisfactory (α = .85, ωh = .84). No age trends in the CD-RISC-10 scores were detected; in males, the scores were higher than in females. As expected, CD-RISC-10 was positively connected with mental wellbeing, positive affect, self-esteem, and authentic living while negatively with depressive symptoms, negative affect, accepting external influence, and self-alienation. The Russian version of CD-RISC-10 seems to be a valid, stable, and reliable instrument which may be recommended for use in various areas of research and practice.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.