Negative Mood Impairs Updating of Affective Information
Executive functions (EF) are a set of higher order cognitive processes that are engaged in a goal directed behaviour. It has been suggested that these functions work differently depending on the type of stimuli (non-affective or affective). Although there are many studies where EF measures have been used for affective or non-affective stimuli, the obtained results do not provide the opportunity to directly compare the data from both measures. To address the problem, the present study aimed at presenting a new battery of cognitive tasks working with non-affective and affective stimuli. Thus, the n-back, Stroop and letter-number tasks were used to assess three core EF, namely updating, inhibition and shifting. New affective versions of the classical n-back, Stroop and letter-number tasks were created as well. Eighty-four participants completed a neutral version followed by the affective version of each task. The results showed a significant positive correlation between the neutral and affective versions in updating and shifting, but not inhibition. There were no significant differences in performance on the neutral and affective versions of updating, cost of inhibition and shift cost. More experiments should be conducted to further broaden the applicability of this novel approach in the assessment of EF in emotion-cognition interactions.
A cross-cutting study of Nekrasov’s legacy, which was activated in the 1920s and 1930s, revealed his complex theatrical nature, far beyond the usual limits of the theater. The abolition of boundaries between the Nekrasov theater and all the rest of his work, which actually occurred in the early Soviet era, as well as at the very beginning of the XX century, through the mechanisms of the theater provided a dialogue between Nekrasov and a new audience, and in fact caused the «creation» of Nekrasov through the atrical adaptations that took place not only on the stage, but also One of the elements of Nekrasov’s poetics — mysteriality-is considered on the example of the poem «Who in Russia lives wel»” in connection with the article by A. I. Zhuravleva «Ostrovsky and Nekrasov», as well as with the observations of Y. M. Bondi, formulated in his letters.
The aim of the current study was to provide an empirical evidence of an emotional state’s influence on the updating of affective information in working memory. The emotional congruence effect was expected: participants in a happy emotional state would be more successful in updating positive information compared to negative and neutral information. It was also expected that participants in a negative emotional state would show the opposite pattern of results. The sample included 66 subjects (age: M = 18.56; SD = 1.02). To measure updating, an affective n-back task was applied with positive, negative and neutral words as stimuli. To induce an emotional state, a combination of autobiographical memories and music listening was used. No emotional congruence effect has been obtained. The pattern of results for reaction times and accuracy was similar in both groups; most likely, it was partially caused by the sequence effect. In all types of trials, participants responded faster after emotion induction. The accuracy of responses to negative (M = 0.83; SD = 0.12) was significantly different compared to positive (M = 0.78; SD = 0.16) and neutral trials (M = 0.73; SD = 0.21). The results show that the updating of emotional stimuli is more effective compared to neutral stimuli; among emotional stimuli, updating negative stimuli is more effective compared to positive stimuli.
Recently, generalized credal sets have been introduced for modeling contradiction (incoherence) in the information. In previous papers, we did not discuss how such information could be updated if some events occur. In this paper, we show that it can be done by the conjunctive rule based on generalized credal sets.We show that the application of generalized credal sets results in several types of conditioning for imprecise probabilities.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.