Linguistic Specificity of the Left Temporal Cortex: Intraoperative Brain Mapping Data
Naming difficulties are one of the most common language deficits in aphasia. The aim of the present study was to develop a psycholinguistic test for object and action naming in aphasia. Data collected during standardization of the subtest for naming objects (116 stimuli) and actions (197 stimuli) demonstrated, that the proposed test is sensitive to anomia in different types and severity of aphasia. Criterion and concurrent validity of the subtest were established as well. Based on collected data more compact subtests for use in the clinic with items of varying difficulty taking into account relevant psycholinguistic properties will be constructed.
The retrieval of low frequency words is usually slower than that of high frequency words. Neuroimaging research on the role of word frequency in linguistic tasks suggests candidate brain areas for the neural substrates of this effect. The only previous fMRI study of word frequency in Russian (Malutina et al., 2012) used an action naming task and obtained data that were highly inconsistent with results for other languages, findings which were mainly obtained using noun-retrieval tasks. In order to verify whether the reasons for such inconsistency were methodological or cross-linguistic, we examined the fMRI correlates of word frequency in Russian using a covert object naming task. We found that the retrieval of low frequency and high frequency nouns activated the same general pattern of brain areas typical for object naming tasks in many languages. Several brain regions were more activated in the low frequency but not the high frequency condition, including the areas and structures usually associated with linguistic processing (the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left thalamus, the left insula), visual perception (the fusiform gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus bilaterally) and cognitive and motor control (the supplementary motor area and the right cingulate gyrus). The right cingulate gyrus was the only area that responded only to the low frequency stimuli but not the high frequency items, when compared to the baseline. At the same time, we found no brain areas that responded more to high versus low word frequency. These results are generally consistent with previous fMRI studies in English, German and Chinese and therefore suggest that the inconsistency between the previous research in Russian and other languages was due to the possible interaction of the part of speech (verb or noun) and word frequency in brain mechanisms for word retrieval, rather than cross-linguistic differences.
This book presents an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of mental lexicon organization. Several models of visual word recognition as well as brain mechanisms of reading are discussed. Also, such basic neurolinguistic topics are reviewed here as brain structure and functioning, memory organization, models of the mental lexicon and lexical access, electrophysiological approach to speech and language research, aphasia’s types and developmental language disorders (SLI, developmental dyslexia), genetics of language impairments, and so on. Finally, this monograph gives the results of four eye tracking experiments on visual word recognition during reading.
The present book is address to a wide range of researchers (linguists, neurophysiologists, psychologists, artificial intelligence specialists, philosophers) who works are associated with cognitive brain research.
The study is based on the analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs) accompanying processing referentially ambiguous pronouns under condition when disambiguation is necessary for effective task performance. Participants were asked to match the pronoun in the second sentence with its antecedent (the noun phrase it is related to) in the first sentence in two conditions: experimental (two possible antecedents) and control (only one possible antecedent). Processing referentially ambiguous pronouns as compared to the control condition elicited an Nref effect – a diffuse ERP deflection 300–400 ms poststimulus that was earlier observed in Dutch and Chinese. Moreover, in contrast to previous results, no P600 effect – late positivity associated with acceptability judgment under condition of referential ambiguity – was found. Our data in comparison with results of previous studies indicate that strategies in processing referentially ambiguous pronouns (acceptability judgment) are determined not only by experimental task but also by absence/presence of anomalous trials in the experimental materials.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.