We propose a general scheme of constructing braided differential algebras via algebras of ‘‘quantum exponentiated vector fields’’ and those of ‘‘quantum functions’’. We treat a reflection equation algebra as a quantum analog of the algebra of vector fields. The role of a quantum function algebra is played by a general quantum matrix algebra. As an example we mention the so-called RTT algebra of quantized functions on the linear matrix group GL(m). In this case our construction essentially coincides with the quantum differential algebra introduced by S. Woronowicz. If the role of a quantum function algebra is played by another copy of the reflection equation algebra we get two different braided differential algebras. One of them is defined via a quantum analog of (co)adjoint vector fields, the other algebra is defined via a quantum analog of right-invariant vector fields. We show that the former algebra can be identified with a subalgebra of the latter one. Also, we show that‘‘quantum adjoint vector fields’’ can be restricted to the so-called ‘‘braided orbits’’ which are counterparts of generic GL(m)-orbits in gl∗(m). Such braided orbits endowed with these restricted vector fields constitute a new class of braided differential algebras.
We introduce the notion of a braided algebra and study some examples of these. In particular, R-symmetric and R-skew-symmetric algebras of a linear space V equipped with a skew-invertible Hecke symmetry R are braided algebras. We prove the “mountain property” for the numerators and denominators of their Poincaré–Hilbert series (which are always rational functions). Also, we further develop a differential calculus on modified Reflection Equation algebras. Thus, we exhibit a new form of the Leibniz rule for partial derivatives on such algebras related to involutive symmetries R. In particular, we present this rule for the algebra U(gl(m)). The case of the algebra U(gl(2)) and its compact form U(u(2)) (which can be treated as a deformation of the Minkowski space algebra) is considered in detail. On the algebra U(u(2)) we introduce the notion of the quantum radius, which is a deformation of the usual radius, and compute the action of rotationally invariant operators and in particular of the Laplace operator. This enables us to define analogs of the Laplace–Beltrami operators corresponding to certain Schwarzschild-type metrics and to compute their actions on the algebra U(u(2)) and its central extension. Some “physical” consequences of our considerations are presented.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.