### Working paper

## Regular behaviour of the maximal hypergraph chromatic number

Intersecting and cross-intersecting families usually appear in extremal combinatorics in the vein of the Erd˝os–Ko–Rado theorem [4]. On the other hand, P. Erd˝os and L. Lov´asz in the noted paper [6] posed problems on coloring intersecting families as a restriction of classical hypergraph coloring problems to a special class of hypergraphs. This note deals with the mentioned coloring problems stated for crossintersecting families.

The smallest number of edges forming an n-uniform hypergraph which is not r-colorable is denoted by m(n,r). Erd\H{o}s and Lov\'{a}sz conjectured that m(n,2)=\theta(n 2^n)$. The best known lower bound m(n,2)=\Omega(sqrt(n/log(n)) 2^n) was obtained by Radhakrishnan and Srinivasan in 2000. We present a simple proof of their result. The proof is based on analysis of random greedy coloring algorithm investigated by Pluh\'ar in 2009. The proof method extends to the case of r-coloring, and we show that for any fixed r we have m(n,r)=\Omega((n/log(n))^(1-1/r) r^n) improving the bound of Kostochka from 2004. We also derive analogous bounds on minimum edge degree of an n-uniform hypergraph that is not r-colorable.

In this paper, it is announced that every maximum distance minimizer is a union of finitely many curves having one-sided tangent lines at every point. This shows that a maximum distance minimizer is isotopic to a finite Steiner tree even for a “bad” compact set M, which distinguishes it from a solution of the Steiner problem (an example of a Steiner tree with infinitely many branching points can be found in a paper by Paolini, Stepanov, and Teplitskaya). Moreover, the angle between these lines at each point of a maximum distance minimizer is at least 2π/3. Also, we classify the behavior of a minimizer Σ in a neighborhood of any point of Σ. In fact, all the results are proved for a more general class of local minimizers.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.