Since coined by Comte, altruism has become one of the most controversial concepts in social and behavioral sciences, although altruistic behavior and related topics have been successfully studied within a number of fields. Oddly, while the theme of altruism was of primary significance in classical sociology of morality, modern sociology seems to have relatively little interest in studying altruism and altruistic behavior (although there are some exceptions) and the field is largely dominated by other social and behavioral sciences. The article aims at reconsidering altruism as a concept and as an area of research in sociology of morality by reviewing the major concepts of altruism in classical sociology and modern behavioral sciences. The article argues that, although for the ‘new’ sociology of morality it is necessary to take into account behavioral and psychological perspectives, a promising sociological approach to the study of altruism in different social contexts can be based on renewing the classical focus on the normative components of moral behavior.
The article considered and implemented a queuing system on the example of particular management task of the bus rental. This system played an important role in the field of economics and everyday life where on the one hand there are emerged mass requirements of the performance of certain services, and on the other hand these requests are being satisfied. The principles of the efficiency of the system operation were highlighted which affect the optimization of the traffic flow. The basic elements were defined, and the algorithm of working system was developed with the formation of input and output data. The article built an economic-mathematical (a simulation) model, in which with the help of specially developed software code and using capabilities of the tools in C++, modeling is happening, particularly, in terms of satisfaction of passenger requirements coming into this system. Peculiar properties were taken into account in the computer program which makes the simulation model an effective tool for decision-making in conditions of uncertainty. In addition to the description of the model, the article presented the results of calculations in graphical and tabular views with its using for a visual image of the options of the resulting situation. The simulation model which imitates a passenger boarding and landing is designed to collect a queue statistics and to find the distribution of a random variable. The result of the study, there was received a solution of the task for simulation of the events at the bus stop. This model gives the opportunity to plan events at the bus stop in order to achieve a uniformity of loads and a dynamic route. It identifies capacity problems that have a negative impact on the operation of the transport cycle.
U.S. and European scholars have established the association between work in government and public service motivation (PSM). Yet, few studies measure PSM among master of public administration (MPA) students and link it to their intention to work in government. For the first time in Russia, the study tests the association between culturally determined measures of prosocial motives of Russian MPA students and their intention to work for government upon graduation. Three theoretical frameworks help structuring this research: public administration, political trust, and volunteering. The data in this study confirm that Russian MPA students with prosocial motives tend to choose work in government. We explain this phenomenon by deriving the prosocial motive theoretical perspective from the larger concept of PSM and from the theory of political trust. In addition, the study finds that formal and informal volunteering is not related to choosing work in government. The implications of these findings are discussed.