### Working paper

## Local Lp-Brunn-Minkowski inequalities for p<1

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

It is well known that Poincarétype inequalities on Riemannian manifolds with measure satisfying the generalized Bakry–Émery condition can be obtained by using the Bochner–Lichnerowicz–Weitzenböck formula. In the case of manifolds with boundary, a suitable generalization is Reilly’s formula. New Poincaré type inequalities for manifolds with measure are obtained by systematically using this formula combined with various conditions on the boundary of the manifold and boundary conditions for elliptic equations. Among other results, a generalization of Colesanti’s inequality, proved earlier in Euclidean space, is presented. It implies a generalization of Brunn–Minkowskitype inequalities for manifolds. A new evolution equation for surfaces on Riemannian manifolds is studied, which determines the Minkowski addition of convex sets in the Euclidean case. The proposed approach covers a large class of convex measures, including measures with heavy tails, which correspond to negative analytic dimension.

We study a Riemannian manifold equipped with a density which satisfies the Bakry--\'Emery Curvature-Dimension condition (combining a lower bound on its generalized Ricci curvature and an upper bound on its generalized dimension). We first obtain a Poincar\'e-type inequality on its boundary assuming that the latter is locally-convex; this generalizes a purely Euclidean inequality of Colesanti, originally derived as an infinitesimal form of the Brunn-Minkowski inequality, thereby precluding any extensions beyond the Euclidean setting. A dual version for generalized mean-convex boundaries is also obtained, yielding spectral-gap estimates for the weighted Laplacian on the boundary. Motivated by these inequalities, a new geometric evolution equation is proposed, which extends to the Riemannian setting the Minkowski addition operation of convex domains, a notion thus far confined to the purely linear setting. This geometric flow is characterized by having parallel normals (of varying velocity) to the evolving hypersurface along the trajectory, and is intimately related to a homogeneous Monge-Amp\`ere equation on the exterior of the convex domain. Using the aforementioned Poincar\'e-type inequality on the boundary of the evolving hypersurface, we obtain a novel Brunn--Minkowski inequality in the weighted-Riemannian setting, amounting to a certain concavity property for the weighted-volume of the evolving enclosed domain. All of these results appear to be new even in the classical non-weighted Riemannian setting.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.