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Working paper

Contested urban spaces: cases of Russia and Europe in comparative view

Tykanova E.
Under "contested spaces," which are to be protected by local communities, we mean “geographic locations where conflicts in the form of opposition, confrontation, subversion, and/or resistance engage actors whose social positions are defined by differential control of resources and access to power”1 . Advocacy groups in this case are the associations of people who defend their rights to and interests in some form of benefit. "Strong" advocacy groups, such as municipal governments and investors, are those who decide about urban planning and implement initiatives, whereas the "weak" are those who have to challenge these decisions through the representatives of local communities, NGOs, lobbyists, and the like.