The article is concerned with the extremely urgent problem of goods counterfeiting and falsification, which has grown to a nation-wide scale. Methods to prove facts of counterfeiting and/or falsification of the products have been considered.
The maximum Nash welfare (MNW) solution — which selects an allocation that maximizes the product of utilities — is known to provide outstanding fairness guarantees when allocating divisible goods. And while it seems to lose its luster when applied to indivisible goods, we show that, in fact, the MNW solution is unexpectedly, strikingly fair even in that setting. In particular, we prove that it selects allocations that are envy free up to one good — a compelling notion that is quite elusive when coupled with economic efficiency. We also establish that the MNW solution provides a good approximation to another popular (yet possibly infeasible) fairness property, the maximin share guarantee, in theory and — even more so — in practice. While finding the MNW solution is computationally hard, we develop a nontrivial implementation, and demonstrate that it scales well on real data. These results lead us to believe that MNW is the ultimate solution for allocating indivisible goods, and underlie its deployment on a popular fair division website.
Among different issues of modern world trade there are some problems known as non-trade concerns, which include environmental issues, climate change, human and animal health. In different international negotiations states have been aiming to liberalize trade in Environmental Goods and Services. This expression became a formal term for trade in the specific area pertaining to environment. Unfortunately, using nowadays equivalent of this English term Ecological goods and services in Russian is incorrect. The author claims that the existing linguistic discrepancy may have negative consequences and for avoiding them the author proposes to introduce another term “goods and services related to environment” in Russianthat matches the English one.
The article makes the analysis of the current legislation in the field of control and regulation of illegal movement of goods containing intellectual property objects, as well as propose measures to improve it in the field.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.