National Borders and Urban Growth: Evidence from the Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine", Series: Economics
The article is about legal regulation of energy medicine in Russia, France and USA. Different legal approches to the problem of illegal energy medicine are described.
The article covers the current reforms of French system of Higher Education. The author identifies emerging trends of the new management model of sector; analyzes the impact of the new management model on enhancing the competitive advantages of the French Higher Education system in the world; and defines a level of its international demand among prospective students.
According to the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871) France lost Alsace and Lorraine. In the paper I estimate how a new border affected a growth of towns. Applying difference-in-differences methodology to census data for 1831-1911, I obtain paradoxical result. New border stimulates growth of nearby towns. Observed effect is turned to be persistent and robust to specification changes. Obtained results are contradicted to both theory and other empirical studies (Sturm, Redding (2008), Brülhart et al.(2012) and others).
Les interactions franco-russes restent peu étudiées dans le domaine des sciences du vivant. Un moment ralenties par la révolution de 1917 et surtout la période stalinienne, les relations scientifiques entre la France et la Russie n’ont pourtant jamais réellement cessé. Contrairement à une idée reçue, même pendant la Guerre froide, les échanges furent presque ininterrompus.
Chacune des contributions russes et françaises du présent ouvrage constitue une étude de cas mettant en avant des scientifiques français ou russes qui ont incarné ces relations. Il ne s’agit pas d’user d’une démarche comparatiste, à la recherche de similitudes et de différences qui figeraient chaque aire culturelle dans son identité, mais plutôt de rendre compte de croisements, d’imbrications constitutives complexes. L’ouvrage est divisé en deux sections respectant les deux sensibilités traditionnelles des sciences de la vie, entre histoire naturelle et médecine, et suit pour chacune d’entre elles une progression chronologique de la fin du XVIIIe siècle à l’époque soviétique.
Food industry plays a key role in each country. That is why the process of globalization makes the problem of ensuring safe production vary important, especially while attracting foreign capital. In this article the two mechanisms of the FDI distribution in Russian food industry companies are discussed. Special econometric tools for this analysis are also proposed. We investigate regional characteristics and the spatial lags (like factor of agglomeration, market potential and others) as determinants of the process. To test the influence of these determinants on the probability to have more than 10% of foreign capital in a company we estimate the hierarchical binary-choice models on a sample of Russian food industry companies (from RUSLANA database, on 2009). According to the results, the hierarchical diffusion of foreign investors is motivated by the seeking of local market and by seeking of the efficiency through lower transportation costs and better investment environment. The local resources in innovations are not significant on this level. When the investors develop new regions they take into account almost all the investigated regional characteristics. The logical complexification of a model allows not only to display the regional heterogeneity but also to determine the regions where the effect of some factors is irregular or more tangible. The development of transport infrastructure of the region and its spatial lag should be pointed out as one of the most substantial effects on the probability to have the FDI.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.