They are Different, They are Similar: A Comparison of the Levels of Entrepreneurship in Germany and Russia
The article describes the multilingualism of the austrian writer V. Vertlib as the source of his literary creativity.
This study is a continuation of Oshchepkov (2010), where it was shown that the rates of return to higher education, obtained by estimating mincer-type wage equations, vary significantly across regions-subjects of the Russian Federation. We try to explain the revealed differences. To this end, we investigate the connection between estimates of the rates of return and different regional characteristics. Our results show that the return to higher education is higher in less attractive regions. It is also positively associated with the rate of unemployment and public sector employment. We did not find significant correlation of the return to higher education with the «stock» of workers with higher education as well as with the level of regional economic development.
This article describes the results of sociological research on estimation of condition and development prospects of federalism in Russia, which was conducted by ZIRCON Research Group in January - May 2011. The opinion of population and elite groups of four regions about the foundations of Russian federalism development, administrative-territorial system of the Russian Federation and its principles, relations between subjects-regions and federative centre is presented. The results of the research indicate that at the moment a request for political and administrative autonomy of the subjects of the Federation is not obviously formulated by either citizens or regional elite groups. Regional identity is not a common phenomenon. The authors mark out necessary factors of federalism development: expansion of economic self-dependence of regions, existence of ethno-national or regional identity of citizens, democratization and decentralization.
In the current situation in Russia during the formation of the SME policy should be given the report that the mindless copying of foreign experience in support of the SME, which is presented in our country and, in particular, in Moscow, is not more than just a squandering of the budget. The failures in the development of the Russian SME sector are directly linked to this copy. The notable examples of this copying can be established in Moscow infrastructure to support the SME. As for the set of the infrastructure organizations to support the SME in Moscow - that it collects almost all the organizations at once from all developed countries, without regard to the realities of Russia and Moscow, with its corruption. While the development of Russian and, accordingly, Moscow small and medium business is being defined by more significant social, economic and political factors than the entire current, thoughtlessly copied from the practices of the developed countries, the Russian system of its state and municipal support.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
The collection contains research in the field of folklore, literature and linguistics
The article constitutes a part of author’s studies on regions and mental geography of the Russian empire. The military actions within own territory normally produce a dramatic and long impact on the spatial imaginations. The Crimean war with its center in newly incorporated New Russia has helped to include this region to the mental maps as the Russian space. The article shows the new symbolic geography formation. It also analyses the efforts of propaganda aimed at maintaining the imperial durability. A special attention is paid to the state militia. The citizen soldiers – nobles and law classes representatives – had the unique opportunity to visit a number of regions. For the inhabitants of Central Russia the border with Little Russia was essential. The perception of Jews has demonstrated xenophobia long before pogroms. Although the authorities had enough reasons to be afraid of separatism, the final conclusion was that the imperial construction is rather healthy. As a result of such a conclusion an elaboration of this construction hasn’t become a part of common program of reforms in Russia. The author used unpublished documents, in particular those preserved in Kiev. The article is a part of the most significant recent international project on the Crimean war. The English translation of the article is published in USA.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.